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GEOG 1982
Jonah Holmes

Final Exam Review Guide Geography Key Terms/Concepts • Anthropocene: current geological period, dominated by human impacts on Planet Earth • Bretton Woods: International Bank for Reconstruction (of Europe) and Development (World Bank), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • Capitalism: country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state OR- An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, driven by the profit motive, and characterized by a competitive marketplace • Catastrophic convergence (Salam’s lecture): when political, economic, and environmental disasters intersect (and are enhanced by climate change). Ex. Syria Can someone explain why Syria is a good example of Catastrophic convergence? Refugees have to leave Syria due to climate change and other environmental catastrophes -Thanks! • Colonialism: the policy of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically • Communism: theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and need; a classless society • Climate change: slow shifting of climate patterns caused by cooling/warming of atmosphere; GHGs released into atmosphere, trapping infrared radiation (heat) • Environmental determinism: approach which implies that individuals are bound to their environmental settings, especially climate; way Europeans to blame refugee crisis on environment and get “off the hook”; belief that the physical environment affects the social and cultural development of a society • Eurocentric/eurocentrism: approach that focuses solely on European culture or history excluding the view of the rest of the world • Favelas: a poor community on a hill (established by freed slaves), factored into urbanization of region, in Brazil OR- Brazilian urban slums and shantytowns built by the poor, called colonias, barrios, or barriadas in other countries, 1888 • Indigeneity (Joel’s lecture and Emily’s lecture): native to a particular place or region. 1492 cutoff date for Indigenous peoples in the United States as defined by pre-colonialism. Examples include Costa Rica such as with the dam proposed to be built on indigenous lands, and creates coalitions with environmentalists and the indigenous peoples. • Imperialism: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. • Malthusianism: view that without ‘moral restraint’ the population will increase at a greater rate than its means of sustainability, as proposed by the English economist and clergyman Thomas Robert Malthus. Earth has a restricted carrying capacity. Impact=Population*technology*affluence • Mandate system: established by the League of Nations after World War I; the system was established to set regulations pertaining to territories transferred between countries; OR - dividing a region into areas to be administered by European powers • Maquiladora: assembly-style factories (in Mexico), usually located near the northern border because it is cheaper to make goods and trade them (labor is cheap) - discrimination against women. • Metonym: a word, name, or expression used as a substitute for something else with which it is closely related (ex. Middle East >>> Iran, Gulf State problems, Isis and terrorism; Wall Street >>> the stock market) There are stereotypes often associated with these metonyms that usually do not apply to many of the citizens in these countries and gives them a bad connotation. • Monroe Doctrine (1823): wanted to keep Europe out of Latin American affairs; US wanted Panama Canal and its trade routes; US wanted to “protect integrity of Panama Canal” by keeping Europe out of region (except the Panama Canal wasn’t opened until 1914, so just forget about that part of the answer) • Nation: group of people sharing common elements of identity and culture; as opposed to state - organized political community in a defined territory and under one government • Nationalism: devotion to interests or culture of a particular country, nation, or cultural group; idea that group of people living in a specific territory and sharing cultural traits should be united and obedient to the country to which they belong • Overseas Chinese: A prosperous urban commercial class of Chinese people who have permanently settled in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines • Political Ecology: study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes. EX: Aral Sea • Pristine myth: the idea that the Western Hemisphere was “untouched” and unaltered prior to European “discovery.” • Refugee: person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. (refugees can also be in country) • The Iron Curtain: Physical and social division between Capitalist western Europe and Communist eastern Europe • Scale (see lecture about cities and urbanization): everything is connected; people can interpret maps differently; scale is important to be able to read maps critically • Swidden agriculture: cutting down trees and burning them and then pour it on soil to fertilize it; people think it led to soil infertility and erosion and was a destructive forest management practice; however, further evaluation - terra preta (black earth), created by humans to be more fertile • Washington Consensus: neoliberalism - free market capitalism; proponents - free trade is good and everyone wants it; good for both the poor and the wealthy; commercial freedom is real freedom; structural adjustment promotes free market - removes restrictions, reduce state spending, export- oriented industries; privatize public enterprises (water, railways, etc) Geographical processes and historical events to know: • The origins of contemporary capitalism (what came before ‘globalization’ as we know it today?) o Feudalism: economic structuring in which a serf serves a lord’s estate in exchange for protection o Mercantilism: the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism. o colonialism o The Roman Empire and the trading of ideas from Egypt, Persia, Africa, Arabia, etc. • The formation of the European Union (why was the EU formed? Which countries are NOT in the EU?) o The European Union itself was developed in 1958 and had intended to endorse great economic integration. The EU was formed in 1993 to create closer economic ties between European countries that fought in the two World Wars in hope that they could avoid another world war if they eliminated tariffs and other trade barriers. o European countries that are not part of the European Union include Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Belarus, Ukraine, Serbia, Albania, Switzerland, Turkey, Russia, Macedonia and Montenegro • Global refugee ‘flows’ after 1950s, specifically in Europe o Because of ongoing conflicts in countries in the Middle East and areas in Africa as well as former colonies of Europe, there was an influx of refugees and migrants into Europe. The formation of the EU and the Schengen agreement have allowed asylum seekers to move through the borders of the EU with ease. The influx of migrants and refugees has also increased a sense of discontent, discrimination and nationalism among Europeans. There has been increased polarity in many countries such as France and Germany where nationalism is starting to take hold. Terrorist attacks in Belgium, France, and Germany have caused even more polarized views of the migrants. • Effects of the 2008 financial crisis on the EU (debt and restructuring in Greece) o European authorities have authorized handing 7.5 billion euros, or $8.4 billion, in bailout aid to Greece, which will allow the country to keep paying its bills in the coming months. The bailout money mainly goes toward paying off Greece’s international loans, rather than making its way into the economy o Since Greece’s debt crisis began in 2010, most international banks and foreign investors have sold their Greek bonds and other holdings, so they are no longer vulnerable to what happens in Greece • Geography of Costa Rica o Costa Rica has a very small carbon footprint. They have economics based on sustainability. Costa Rica has gold, natural resources, indigenous people and smart politicians. Consists of a lot of rain forest and has a high vulnerability to climate change. Costa Rica holds about 6% of all the world’s biodiversity. Wealth of Costa Rica: pineapples, bananas, coffee, teak plantations, biodiversity and diverse biospheres, ecotourism o Costa Rica is a democracy with no military • Water crisis in Flint, Michigan (Sam’s talk) (Notes from Lecture) o Population: 100,000 o “The City General Motors built to build the cars it sold” o Industrialization: Making the Manufacturing Belt ▪ Roots in settler colonialism, cities o Changing industries ▪ Initially: water power ▪ Later: coal and Iron o Migration and culture in industrial America ▪ 1820s-1880s: Western Europe (English, Irish, Germans) ▪ Later: Scandinavia, southern and Eastern Europe ▪ Mirrors spread of industrialization ▪ Cities and immigrants ▪ Labor and resistance o Responding to Resistance ▪ Recognizing unions in the workplace ▪ Promotion of homeownership ▪ Investments in urban infrastructure, education, recreation o Industrial Flint ▪ “Sit down” strike 1936-37 • Solidified of United Auto Workers ▪ Population Growth • 1900: 13,000 - 1960: 197,000 ▪ GM employs 80,000 employees o Deindustrialization and Disinvestment ▪ Industrial expansion begins to slow down ▪ Creative Destruction • Decaying capital and infrastructure in manufacturing belt • High costs of labor (unions) ▪ New growth in “Sun Belt” o “The Rust Belt” ▪ Decaying infrastructure in inner cities ▪ Some populations more mobile than others ▪ Social services seek to grow and encouraged with all the urbanization o Flint “Doomsday” ▪ GM Employment: 1978 - 80,000 and 2010 - 8,000 o Geographies of Difference ▪ Gentrification • The buying and renovation of houses and stores in deteriorated urban neighborhoods by upper- or middle- income families or individuals, raising property values but often displacing low-income families and small businesses ▪ Flint in Crisis • Bankrupt 2002-2004: emergency financial manager appointed by senate • 2011: second emergency manager o Flint: Water Crisis ▪ Flint had switched to Detroit water in 1960s • New water system ▪ Lead in Flint River water • Initially disregarded by Emergency Manager, EPA ▪ Flint had been drinking leaded water for two years • Some water deemed as hazardous waste ▪ Lead levels in Flint children doubled/tripled ▪ Costs: • $1 billion water system • Children generation poisoned, lead poisoning • Indigeneity (Joel’s talk): Being Native to a certain place and culture • Challenges of defining Russia as a region (importance of Russia as a political entity, challenges of including non-Russian regions such as the Caucuses) o Russia as a region encompasses the former soviet states, which include Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, etc. These countries include very diverse languages and diverse religions. They are considered part of the Russian region only because they are former soviet states and underwent a lot of communist cleansing according to Russian standards in which many people lost their lives and were exiled from their countries. The Caucuses include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia. The mountains separating Russia from the Caucasus region play an important role in deterring Russian aggression. o Because of Russia’s status as a superpower in the Cold War, it is still very relevant in the present with their influence in the eastern region, military prowess, and authoritarian leaning government. o Attempted to assert control over its countries by eliminating the use of latin and arabic • 1951 Convention on Refugees (flaws in the 1951 definition, Euro-centrism, etc.)Refugee challenges in the context of the Syrian war o The definition of a Refugee was someone fleeing their country and out of fear, is not willing to return to it. It says that there must be a well founded fear, that they must be outside of their country to be called a refugee, and it applied mainly to the victims of WWI and WWII. Therefore, this definition is very outdated and cannot be applied to the refugees of today. o People with fear of being persecuted for a variety of reasons or is outside the country of their nationality who is willing to move to a country where they will be protected o Convention Definition: ▪ Temporal and geographic limitation ▪ The interpretation of “well-founded” ▪ The absence of persecution on the basis of gender and sexual orientation ▪ The exclusion of internally displaced persons ▪ The eurocentricity • Challenges of defining ‘Southwest Asia’ or the ‘Middle East’ as a region (legacies of colonialism, etc.) o Metonym - people refer to problems in Iran, Iraq, etc as “Middle East” problems o Once you’ve taken out India, Soviet Union, South Africa, and Europe, this is what’s left o Takes a lot of paragraphs and terminology to explain why this is a region o The top five Islamic populations are not found within this region. The top five Muslim nations are 1) Indonesia 2) India 3) Pakistan 4) Bangladesh 5) Nigeria; it isn’t until we arrive at the 6th most Muslim populous country (Egypt) that, that nation appears in this region and thus it is a shaky argument to claim that the religion of Islam is a defining characteristic that classifies these nations as a region. o Ottoman Empire and language are not why it’s a region - old Mesopotamia is what people have in mind o `Modern Middle East was made by mandate system - League of Nations carved it out - British system in power • WWI and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire o Armistice of 31 October 1918 ended the fighting between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies but did not bring stability or peace to the region o Great War led to the dissolution of three European empires — Russian, Austrian and German — from which emerged unimaginable consequences for the future of Europe o Additionally, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire left consequences for today’s Middle East o British were in control of Syria, Palestine and Mesopotamia (Iraq), and British, French and Greek forces stood ready to march across the Bulgarian border and occupy Ottoman Thrace and Constantinople o • WWII and colonies’ demands for independence o • The Cold War o Domino theory: if one country goes to one side or the other then the other countries will follow suit o Nuclear power becomes important - Korea begins testing missiles o Line is drawn between Afghanistan and Pakistan - outside pressure from Soviet Union forces Pakistan to stick together o US gets involved in the war once Russia does - we arm Afghanistan o 1989 - realize that resistance is unsustainable, Russia withdraws??? • The dissolution of the Soviet Union o Gorbachev introduced two policies in order to strengthen the Soviet Union: perestroika (political openness within the communist party) and glasnost (economic refo
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