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HIST 1051 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sophist, Ancient Agora Of Athens, Megarian Decree

Course Code
HIST 1051
Study Guide

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Exam 2 – Wednesday November 11th
Ch04: Sparta (matching)
1. First Messenian War
a. 743 BC to 724 BC
b. Spartans invade Messenia
c. Messenians become helots who worked the land for Sparta; had to
give Spartans half of their produce
2. Second Messenian War
a. 699 BC when Messenians rebelled against Sparta (Battle of Hysiae)
b. Spartans win, but still outnumbered by helots
c. Male helots turned into professional soldiers
3. Helots
a. Semi-slaves (inhabitants of the Laconian plain, subject to Spartan
4. Perioikoi
a. Those who could serve in the army, but not the government
b. Somewhat autonomous
c. Other surrounding cities (not Laconian plain)
5. Lycurgus
a. Spartan philosopher who founded Spartan system
6. Ephors
a. Magistrates who inspected Spartan warriros
7. Syssition
a. Dinning group
b. Spartan men expected to join one and eat with members of their army
group, bring their own food/drink, and laugh at helots drinking
unmixed wine
8. Gerousia
a. Council of Elders
b. 28 men over the age of 60 who shared judicial functions with the king
c. Elected by popular assembly, and could override decision made by the
9. Krypteia
a. Secret police
b. Boss = ephors
c. Used to control/kill the helots
Ch05: Growth of Athens (matching)
1. Archon basileus
a. Administered city’s cults and judged lawsuits pertaining to religious
b. Position: used to be basileus, replaced by 3 archons one who was
CALLED basileus
2. Thesmothetai
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a. 6 judicial officials added to civic offices, making 9 archons total
b. Elected from small circle of aristocratic families
3. Council of the Areopagus
a. Archons governed with the council that met on the hill
4. Conspiracy of Cylon
a. 7th century BC (632 BC)
b. Took advantage of marriage connection to tyrant of Megara and tried
to seize Acropolis to become tyrant of Athens
c. Thwarted by Athenians and killed by Megacles (an archon)
5. Draco
a. Codified Athenian law 620 BC
b. Laws on homicide replaced family/kin with state as arbitrator
(before, homicide was avenged by family)
c. Death for murder, exile for unintentional homicide
d. BASICALLY took power fromt eh families and gave it to central
6. Solon
a. Reforms after Draco 590’s BC
b. Abolished debt slavery
c. Illegal to sharecrop
d. Freed those enslaved by debt, cancelled obligations of share croppers
e. Brought home Athenians who were sold into slavery overseas
f. Helped with trade
g. Allowed foreign marriages and citizenship of children
7. Seisachtheia
a. One of Solon’s reforms: shaking off of burdens
b. Freed those enslaved by debt and cancelled obligations of share
8. Ekklesia
a. Thetes (poor farmers and artisans) who could join others at the
9. Metics
a. Resident aliens
10. Council of 400
a. Counterweight to Council of the Areopagus
b. 100 men from each phyle or tribe, prepared business for the assembly
11. Pisistratus
a. Distant relative of Solon
b. Staged a coup in 560 BC and seized the acropolis and the government
c. Married Megacles’ daughter
d. Tricked Athenians into believing Athena herself had arrived to
proclaim Pisistratus tyarant (by dressing up a woman named Phya)
12. Herodotus
a. Greek historian
b. Claims Pisistratus tricked Athenians by dressing up mortal woman
Phya as Athena
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13. Greater Dionysia
a. Festival (established by Pisistratus) where tragedy, comedy and
satiric drama originated
14. Panathenaea
a. Festival that honored Athena
15. Hippias and Hipparchus
a. Sons of Pisistratus
b. Ruled as co-tyrants after Pisistratus’ death
16. Cleisthenes
a. Instituted reforms
b. From 4 tribes to 10 tribes to curb power of aristocrats
c. Broke up Athens into demes
d. Council of 500 (boule)
17. Prytaneis
a. Serving members
b. 50 chosen from each of the 10 tribes
18. Pynx
a. Place for ekklesia (assembly) to meet; carved out of a rock on a hill
19. Aristagoras
a. Tyrant of Miletus
b. Switched back and forth – encouraged Persians to overthrow Cycladic
islands, then switched sides and encouraged Greek colonies to revolt
against Persia, then helped overthrow Persian tyrants in Ionia, then
went to Sparta
20. Themistocles
a. Newly elected archon persuaded Athenians to make naval base in
21. Darius
a. 521 – 486 BC (ruler of Persian empire)
b. Moved Persian capital to Persepolis, used Greeks as laborers in capital
building projects
c. Minted his own coins
22. Battle of Marathon
a. September 490 BC
b. Fight between Athens/Sparta and Persia
c. Persians caught off guard and fled, Spartans arrive too late (Athens
23. Aeschlyus
a. Fought in Marathon, mentioned on epitaph
24. Ostracism
a. Innovation of Cleisthenes
b. Athenians could kick out someone they thought too powerful for 10
years (required 6,000 votes)
25. Triremes
a. Light, fast, maneuverable warships with three banks of oars
26. Hellenic League
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