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Study Guide

PHIL 1100 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - White People, Virginia, The Orville


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1100
Professor
All
Study Guide
Final

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PHIL 1100

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Ethical theory acts as a means of studying ethics (the why)
Ethics are not the same as morals; ethics concern the study of behavior and being while morals
concern the practice of doing
Doing implies the existence of a moral code (rules of right and wrong as implied by Kantian
ethics and Deontology)
However, ethics and morals both concern the nature of right and wrong, which can be further
divided into:
- Consequences (harm): which count and for who?
- Virtues (good): if in agreement (thus implying relativism), creates an idolization of a
given desirable state and a consistency of objective quality (ie. how was Aristotle’s list of
the best arrived at?)
Philosophy as being wise (eg. experienced, insightful - knowing when we’re wrong and what we
don’t know, thinking about assumptions)
Wisdom as knowing you know nothing (Socrates)
Philosophy literally means “love of wisdom”, implying a degree of wisdom about everything (ie.
every culture has music - why does it exist and why is it valued?)
Areas of philosophy:
- Epistemology - general knowledge
- Metaphysics - the nature of things and the state of being
- Axiology - values (basically, ethics)
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Interconnected and overlapping (ie. certain epistemologists posit that there’s no such thing as
knowledge - a rather cynical position)
If we can know, then what is knowledge?
- Belief (even in falsehoods)
- Truth
- Reason (justification; knowledge is limited without this)
Meta-ethics (the philosophy of ethics and how ethical studies are conducted) can be broken down
into:
- Cognitivism (there does exist a truth about ethics and right and wrong beyond an
emotional response)
- Non-cognitivism (emotivism; there is no ethical truth, decisions are left to personal
preference)
Cognitivism includes relativists and universalists (aka objectivists)
Differ in how they arrive at an ethical truth
Boss divides relativism into subjectivism, cultural relativism, and divine command theory
(debatably)
Divine command theory is relative to “God’s will”
Subjectivism - person to person interactions and comparisons determine ethical truth (both sides
are correct, but their positions are stronger than belief)
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