PSYC 2606 Final: PSYC2606: Final Exam Study Guide

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Psychology and Neuroscience
PSYC 2606
Christopher Loersch

Marlee Lederer PSYC 2606 Final Exam Exam 1: ● Schemas - Social Cognition ○ Schemas ■ An organized mental structure relating all the information we know about a particular theme or subject ■ Learned through experience ● Indirect attitude measures - Attitudes ○ 1) The bogus pipeline → convince participants you can read their mind ○ 2) Behavior → behavioral measures - attitudes lead behavior ○ 3) Physiology → measuring the body’s automatic responses ■ EEG - measures electricity created by neural activity ■ EMG - records facial muscle activity associated with emotions ○ 4) Implicit Associations Test (IAT) → measures associations between attitude objects and positive/negative stimuli ■ Computer based ■ Assesses reaction times to stimuli ■ Based on priming and accessibility ● Definition of an attitude - Attitudes ○ A summary evaluation of an object or concept ○ Based on positive and negative learned associations ● Kelley’s covariation principle - Attribution → The idea that behavior should be attributed to potential causes that occur along with the observed behavior. ○ Consensus → what would most people do in a given situation? ○ Distinctiveness → is this behavior unique? ○ Consistency → how consistent is this behavior with the individual's previous actions ● Jones and Davis’ correspondent inference theory - Attribution ○ Correspondent inference theory: predicts the likelihood of dispositional attributions ■ Free Choice → the more evidence the behavior was freely chosen, the stronger the dispositional attribution. ■ Expectedness → the less expected the behavior, the stronger the dispositional attribution. ■ Consequences → the more negative (and fewer positive) effects of a behavior, the stronger the dispositional attribution. ● Representativeness heuristic - Social Cognition ○ Classifying things according to how similar they are to expectations. ○ Ex. Linda is 31 years old, sing and very bright. She is generally quiet and methodical in her habits. She majored in philosophy at university and as a student was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice. ■ 1) What is the likelihood Linda is a bank teller? ■ 2) What is the likelihood Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement? ○ People typically answer 2 even though the likelihood of her being a bank teller is higher than being a bank teller in addition to something else, despite the extra information we were given about Linda. ○ See also; availability heuristic: basing a judgement on the ease with which something comes to mind. ■ “If it’s easy to think of, then it must be correct.” ● Construal - Social Cognition ○ People can see the same “objective” information in different ways ○ That is, people can have different construals of the same object. ○ Influenced by our expectations. ● Parts of a research article - Methods ○ General Information ■ Journal ■ Title ■ Authors and affiliation ■ Author note ○ Abstract ○ Introduction ■ Overview/big picture ■ Literature review ■ Transition paragraph ○ Experiment ■ Overview ■ Methodology ● Participants, design, procedure, IV, DV, debriefing ○ Results ■ Tables and graphs ○ Discussion ■ Research recap, implications, final take away ○ References ● Cognitive dissonance - Attitudes ○ An uncomfortable feeling we get when our behaviors are not in line with our attitudes. ● Types of research - Methods ○ Measurement vs. manipulation ■ Measure ● Correlational design ● Test whether two variables are related (associated; correlated) ■ Manipulate ● Experimental design ● Tests whether a change in one variable produces a change in another ○ The manipulated variable - IV The outcome variable - DV ○ Conceptual (general) vs. Operational (specific) ● Scripts and schemas - Social Cognition ○ Function to filter information, fill in “gaps” in knowledge, and guide decision making. ● Definition of social psychology - Introduction ○ “The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in regards to other people and how individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by the real or imagined presence of others.” ● Fundamental attribution error - Attribution ○ FAE → the tendency for people to make dispositional attribution (over situational ones). ● Definition of a dependent variable - Methods ○ Changes according to the independent variable - this is the variable being measured. ● Validity - Methods ○ Valid experiments include: ■ A manipulation ■ Two or more conditions ■ Random assignment of participants to condition ■ Situational constancy ● Except for those aspects that are manipulated ● Just world hypothesis - Attribution ○ We believe people get what they deserve/what goes around comes around. ● Actor-observer effect - Attribution ○ A bias to make dispositional attributions for the behavior of others (the F.A.E.) but situational attributions for ourselves. ○ This is due to information (we know we don’t always behave in the same way) and attention (other people fill our attention when they behave and the situation fills our attention when we behave). ● Primacy and recency effects - Social Cognition ○ Primacy effect: a type of order effect - the disproportionate influence on judgement by information presented first in a body of evidence. ○ Recency effect: a type of order effect - the disproportionate influence on judgement by information presented last in a body of evidence. ● Independent vs. interdependent cultures - Introduction ○ Independent cultures (individualistic): Western, American, European, etc. ■ The self is a unique autonomous entity: ● Individual needs are highly important ● Be true to yourself ● Behave consistently across situations ○ Interdependent cultures (collectivist): Eastern, China, India, etc. ■ The self is connected with others: ● Social groups and others’ needs are most important ● Primary goal → maintain group harmony ● Definition of a true experiment - Introduction ○ The Scientific Method: social psychology relies on scientific methods to explore human behavior ■ Systematic observation ■ Accurate measurement ■ Stringent statistical analyses ● Counterfactual thinking - Attribution ○ The human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened. ● Chronic versus temporary accessibility - Social Cognition ○ Accessibility: the extent to which information is at the forefront of your mind. ○ Priming: the process by which recent experiences make related information more accessible (manipulates accessibility). ○ Two types: ■ Chronic: knowledge that is accessible across all situations ■ Temporary: knowledge is accessible only in certain situations ● Evidence supports an evolutionary perspective - Introduction ○ Because group living heightens reproductive fitness, biological and psychological processes evolved to support group functioning. ○ The evolutionary perspective focuses on practices and understandings that are universal and seem to be indispensable to social life, suggesting that humans are prewired to engage in those practices. Natural selection has operated on human behaviors just as it has on physical traits. ○ Ex. Evolutionary theory provides a perspective on family violence, such as stepchildren being more subject to abuse than genetic offspring, who can carry on the genetic line. ○ Ex. Evolutionary perspective explains that men are more likely to harm other men than women because they face a fiercer competition for mates. ● Heider and Simmel’s study with moving shapes - Attribution ○ The human tendency to anthropomorphize things - give them emotion. ○ People gave emotion/human characteristics to moving shapes when told to narrate a short video on them. ● Self-fulfilling prophecy - Social Cognition ○ Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen. ■ Our expectations lead us to behave in ways that elicit the very behavior we expect from others. ■ Ex. if we think someone is unfriendly, we’re likely to offer something of a cold shoulder ourselves, which is likely to elicit the very coldness we anticipated. ● Self-perception theory - Attitudes ○ People determine their attitudes by interpreting the the meaning of their own behavior. ● Schemas - Social Cognition ○ Schemas ■ An organized mental structure relating all the information we know about a particular theme or subject ■ Learned through experience ● Mechanisms of attitude formation - Attitudes ○ (A)ffect: emotions, moods, and feelings ○ (B)ehavior: observation of behavior ○ (C)ognition: thoughts and beliefs ● How to read a journal article - Methods ○ ○ “Speed reading” ● Scale construction - Attitudes ○ Direct measures → using a response scale to assess attitudes ○ The most used technique ○ Design decisions: ■ Midpoint ● Can force a side… ● Ambivalence vs. no opinion ■ Unipolar vs. bipolar ● Assess both + and - content ● Indifferences vs. ambivalence ■ Number of response options ● Must not obscure common feelings ● Must be psychologically meaningful ■ Scale numbering ● Ease of mapping ● Numbering biases ■ Scale labeling ● Label extremity ● Level anchoring ■ Preceding questions ● Exam 2: ● Social exclusion - Group Processes ○ Ex. Cyberball ○ Local impact: ■ Belonging: How much do you feel belonged to the group? ■ Self-esteem: To what extent do you think the other participants value you as a person? ○ Global impact: ■ Meaningful existence: How true is the statement: ‘Life is meaningless’? ■ Control: How true is the statement: ‘I am in control of my life’? ○ Results ■ Social exclusion impacts physical pain: ● Anterior cingulate cortex: ● ● Stereotypes - Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination ○ 3 basic components (ABCs) of stereotyping: ■ (A)ffect: Prejudice ● Attitude towards a group ■ (B)ehavior: Discrimination ● Behavior towards someone based solely on group membership ■ (C)ognition: Stereotype ● Knowledge associated with a group ● Schema including physical attributes, traits, preferences, clothing, behavior, etc. ○ Stereotypes affect: ■ Interpretation of current behavior ■ Memory for past behavior ● Biased memory ■ Behavior towards others ● Self-fulfilling prophecy ■ Others’ behavior ● Stereotype threat: occurs when individuals are concerned they will confirm a stereotype - behavior often conforms to the activated stereotype ○ Activation: if a stereotype is know, it will be automatically activated by related cues ○ Application: if motivated and able, you can avoid stereotype application [MxA] ■ Ability: must be aware of activation and relevance to current situation ■ Motivation: must want to be (or appear) non-prejudiced ● Outgroup homogeneity - Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination ○ Outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency for people to assume that within group similarity is much stronger for outgroup than for ingroups (because we know our ingroup on a more individualized basis). ● Social facilitation - Social Decision Making ○ The role of arousal - a theory of social facilitation: ■ The presence of a conspecific creates arousal ● Conspecific: member of one’s own species ■ Arousal increases the likelihood of dominant response; quick and easy, what comes naturally ■ Easy tasks: dominant response is correct ■ Difficult task: dominant response is incorrect ● Social norms/compliance techniques - Social Influence ○ Variables that impact the degree of compliance: ■ Reasons ■ Reciprocity ■ Consensus ■ Consistency ■ Liking ■ Scarcity ○ Bait and Switch: promising something, make someone commit to purchasing from you (bait) and then you switch it out for something that’s less attractive that they wouldn’t buy if you had introduced it at first. ○ Foot in the door: consistency ○ Door in the face: reciprocity ○ Sweetening the deal: reciprocity ● Intergroup bias in the media - Group Processes/Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination ● Normative & Informational social influence - Social Influence ○ Normative influence: occurs in all social situations when anyone who is different may be punished or excluded ○ Informational influence: occurs in unfamiliar or ambiguous situations when others are likely to know how best to behave ● Evolution & Group living - Group Processes ○ Because group living heightens reproductive fitness, biological and psychological processes evolved to support group functioning. ● Obedience - Social Influence ○ Change in behavior in response to direct commands from authority. ○ Most extreme form of yielding social influence. ○ You know you’re doing it because someone told you to. ○ Ex. Milgram’s shock trials ● Properties of human groups - Social Decision Making ● Realistic Group Conflict Theory - Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination ○ A theory that group conflict, prejudice, and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources. ● Obligatory Interdependence - Group Processes ○ Humans are innately social species and rely on others to survive ■ Omnivorousness: taking in everything available ■ Extended infancy and childhood: in the first 13-16 years of our lives, we learn everything we must know (socially) about the living world. ● Social Loafing - Social Decision Making ○ When performing in a group (vs. individually), different effects emerge… ○ Social facilitation: the tendency for people to put less effort into group tasks ■ Occurs only when individual performance can not be evaluated ○ Opposite effect of social facilitation in regards to task difficulty: ■ Difficult task: individual performance in group gets better ■ Easy task: individual performance in group gets worse ● Reactance Theory - Social Influence ○ The idea that people reassert their prerogatives in response to the unpleasant state of arousal they experience when they believe their freedoms are threatened. ● Devine’s model of stereotyping (dual process models) - Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination ○ 1. Stereotype activation: ■ Automatic processing (priming) ■ Occurs for anyone who knows the stereotype ○ 2. Stereotype application: ■ Controlled process ■ With effort the person can be individuated ■ Requires both motivation and ability ● Music and Social Groups - Social Influence ● Conformity - Group Processes ● Compliance Techniques (e.g., “door in the face”) - Social Influence ○ Bait and Switch: promising something, make someone commit to purchasing from you (bait) and then you switch it out for something that’s less attractive that they wouldn’t buy if you had introduced it at first. ○ Foot in the door: consistency ○ Door in the face: reciprocity ○ Sweetening the deal: reciprocity ● Social norms - Group processes ○ A powerful predictor of behavior driven by the need to belong. ○ Schemas for group members’ behavior ○ Influence how to think and behave ○ Informally and Formally defined ■ Examples of formal norms: student code of conduct, parliamentary procedure, legal documents, etc. ■ Examples of informal norms: what to eat, what to wear, how to talk (accents, profanity), how to interact, how to defecate, etc. ● Descriptive and proscriptive norms - Social Influence ○ Descriptive norms: what people actually do ○ Prescriptive norms: social control (what people should do) ● Groupthink, Group polarization and self-censorship - Group Processes ● Conformity -
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