SOCY 1021 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Lewis F. Powell Jr., Gentrification, Old Boy Network

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1 Dec 2016
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CU-Boulder
SOCY 1021
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 15
Affirmative Action:
Lyndon B Johnson’s Affirmative Action Program 19: We did a good deed by
You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him,
bring him to the starting line of race, saying, you are free to compete with all the
others, and still justly believe you have been completely fair… This is the next and
more profound stage of he battle for civil rights. We seek not just freedom but
opportunitynot just legal equity but human abilitynot just equality as a right
and a theory, but equality as a fact and as a result
Got rid of discrimination policies, but thats just the starting line
Not on equal footing as everyone else
Need to actively integrate
Affirmative action covers race, gender, and Vietnam veterans
o If you came into the United States as an immigrant you are not
included in this program
o Includes all races for gender, including White
o White women benefit the most, more likely to have a college degree
o White women also disagree with this program the most because of the
belief it is race-based
1978 Bakke vs. California Court Case:
Challenge to affirmative action in the courts
Allan Bakke: White male, 36 years old, applied to medical school and rejected
twice
UC Davis Med School had 16 set-aside seats for Affirmative Action applicants
Bakke alleged that he was discriminated against because of his White race
He scored higher on his MCAT than Affirmative Action applicants both years,
so if it werent for set aside seats he wouldve gotten in
o However, they were also higher than those admitted by those
admitted in general category
Outcome: Quotas ruled unconstitutional in quotas or set-asides, and he was
admitted to Med School
o Wasnt necessarily 16 set aside seats if his MCAT scores were also
better than everyone elses
o Applied drastically older than other applicants
o War veteran
o Could have been age discrimination
Gratz v. Bollinger 2002:
Jennifer Gratz, a White women, was denied entrance to the University of
Michigan
Each applicant could earn up to 150 points
o Race (affirmative action points): 20 points if you were Black, Native
American, Latino, person of color
o Low-income family: 20 points
Could not be earned in addition to race, therefore, only for
White people
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o 16 points if you were from the upper peninsula of Michigan (over
92% White)
o If you went to one of the top ten high schools in Michigan: 10 points
(middle-upper class White students)
o 8 points for one or more AP classes (middle-upper class White
students)
o Legacy student: 4 points (primarily White)
Outcome: No more formal point system
o 58 disproportional points go towards White people
o However, Gratz was upset about the 20 points under-representing
colored students
o No one concerned about the points favoring White students
o Didnt determined that she was discriminated against but that she
could have been
Grutter v Bollinger 2003:
Argued she didnt get into graduate school at the University of Michigan
because she was White
Outcome: No standardized point system extended to beyond a bachelors
degree program, but race can be used with individualized consideration
o Reaffirmed Gratz case
Justice Sandra Day O’Connor: “The court expects that 25 years from now, the use
of racial preferences will no longer be necessary.
Affirmative action is not a permanent solution because we will have no need
for it because it will no longer be a problem
Fisher v. Texas 2013, 2015, and in 2016:
Abigail Fisher applied to the University of Texas, Austin and was admitted
under a condition admission program
o Not going to accept her this year, but she can attend another UT
school, and if she achieved a certain GPA she could attend later on
Probono case
Texas Top Ten Program: If you graduate in the top ten percent in your class
no matter if its the best or worst school you are guaranteed admission to a
state school
o Majority of slots (92% of spots) went to people in this program during
her year applying
o Used affirmative action in addition to this Top Ten program
No evidence that she was discriminated against
o Average student
o Only 8% of in-state spots
o Students that did better than her didnt get in
Her name was only mentioned 5 times in court room
Outcome: sent case back down to lower-court, ruled that she had not been
discriminated against
o Altered case slightly in 2015: Shifted burden of proof onto Michigan
Justice Kennedy: On University to make sure policies are implemented properly
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Document Summary

Lecture 15 more profound stage of he battle for civil rights. Got rid of discrimination policies, but that(cid:495)s just the starting line. Not on equal footing as everyone else. Challenge to affirmative action in the courts. Allan bakke: white male, 36 years old, applied to medical school and rejected twice: however, they were also higher than those admitted by those. Uc davis med school had 16 set-aside seats for affirmative action applicants. Bakke alleged that he was discriminated against because of his white race. Outcome: quotas ruled unconstitutional in quotas or set-asides, and he was: applied drastically older than other applicants, war veteran, could have been age discrimination admitted in general category admitted to med school. Jennifer gratz, a white women, was denied entrance to the university of. Each applicant could earn up to 150 points: race (affirmative action points): 20 points if you were black, native. American, latino, person of color: low-income family: 20 points.

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