[BIOLOGY 207] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 23 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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BIOLOGY 207
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Bio 207 1/11/17
Designated slide 2tree of life
- On this tree, there is vertical descent, which means that moving from an ancestor to its
descendants, the tree splits vertically
o So “newest” species at the top, oldest ancestors at the bottom
- Branches from prokaryotes to eukaryotes demonstrates the endosymiotic theory
Slide 4
- Darwins tree of life had clear ideas of speciation as well as extinction (shown by
branches that do not make it to the top representing present time
Class details
- No cumulative final, just another hourly exam (the fourth) during finals week
- Best 10/12 quizzes kept, 20% of grade
- 80% of grade are the four exams; best is upweighted by 50%, worst is down weighted by
50%
- Use the lecture guide as a tool for studying
- Kingdoms are no longer used, now use clades and domains
-
Slide 7 Deep Time
- First 3 billion years, not much happened
- The past billion year was the one in which “everything” that we are interested in
happened
- Arrows and frowns are marking out major extinction events
o K/T boundary, most evidence for this, associated with the extinction of the
dinosaurs
o P/T boundary, apparently 95% of species on earth disappeared, and what is
interesting is that the tree of life was able to rebound
- Smaller red arrows denote major “good” events, those of great diversity
- Shark bay Australia has stromatolites which is very solid evidence for cyanobacteria at
2.7 billion years ago
Slide 9
- All plants use the same reaction for photosynthesis-this is due to cyanobacteria now
existing in plants as chloroplasts
Slide 10
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- When atmosphere became oxygenated, likely large extinction event but opened the door
for aerobic organisms like humans
Slide 11
- First live was likely prokaryotic; single circular molecule of DNA for genetic material
and no nucleus compartment
o Ribosomes were of the small size class, in cytoplasm with mostly no organelles
Web of lifethe crossing lines in the tree of life, like a linke from prokaryotes going into
eukaryotes
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