[BIOLOGY 321] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 26 pages long Study Guide!

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BIOLOGY 321
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Primate Sexuality 1/19 Lecture 2
- Mammals, tree of life distinctions
o One major distinction:
Marsupials & monotrems
Eutherian, aka placental (the vast majority)
o Edentates: toothless mammals; many of the distinctions are based on teeth
o Four major clades of edentates
- Primate Shared Characteristics
o “primitive body plan”; common arboreal condition [shared among NON-
primates]:
long, flexible backbone
short flexible neck
5 fingered clinging hands and feet
many have tails
Distinguishing Primate Characteristics
- Generalized dental pattern; meaning they diet is not specialized, most are omnivores
- Evolution of diet: started adding in small vertebrates, then flowers and other similar
things, and the last specialization to develop was eating mature leaves
- Still having pentadactyly, but also opposable thumb
- Padded digits and palms; nails not claws; one of the earliest developments, evolved for a
sense of touch, greater sensitivity (there are some exception)
o Flat nails on the thumbs are the only defining feature that all primates have, even
for those that are exceptions in that they have claws
- Ulna and radius allow for palmar rotation
o Allows for swinging from tree to tree
- Clavicles unite arms to chest to facilitate hanging
- Forward facing eyes; this allows for depth perception and 3D vision; improvements in
acuity and tri-color color vision
o Greater definition in vision led to a lesser reliance on olfaction, reduction of snout
as well
- Skull expansion and increased brain complexity; also leads to longer gestation period
- Longer dependency period and juvenility; mothers therefore carry fewer young
- Male residencyboth sexes residing together throughout the year, not just during a
breeding period
o Increased social complexity, individual-centered society
Primate Taxonomy
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(image from powerpoint made by Dr. Drea)
- 6 super families within the order of primates
o Prosimians the lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers split off relatively early from the rest
of the primates
- Classical classification separates prosimians (‘primitive’ grade) and simian (‘advanced’
grade) at a point between nodes
o Divided by bi-cornuate uterus in prosimians, single chambered uterus in simians
(like humans)
o In a bicornuate uterus, there can be litters of animals with two connecting
chambers, perhaps with three fetuses in each chamber
o Single chambered uterus able to happen because litters and offspring per mom
decreased
- Cladistic Classification: separates primate tree at a node, at which point lorises and
lemurs separate from the rest
o Strepsirrhines: “wet nose”, includes lemurs and lorises
o Happlorrhines: “dry nose”, includes tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world
monkeys, apes and humans
Prosimians
- Tend to be nocturnal, small, however they are diverse overall; 3 groups within this:
o Lemuriformes, lorisiformes, tarsiiformes
- The two sexes tend to be of similar size (sexual monomorphism); female dominated
o If there is a difference, males are bigger and have physical advantage (just
because of greater testosterone; likely energetics prevent them from getting too
big)
New World Anthropoids aka Platyrrhines
- Two families: cebidae and callitrichidae (although these are often separated quite
differently)
- Cebidae:
o Squirrel monkeys, organ-grinding monkeys, owl monkey (only nocturnal one of
these), spider monkey, alouattinae (howler monkeys)
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