ANTH 2200 Midterm: Exam 2 Study guide

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ANTH 2200
Benjamin Brooks

Distinctions between disease and illness Disease: Deviation from the norms of biological or physical functioning; something we can measure (“the lab test reveals an elevated serum cholesterol”) Illness: The human experience of disvalued states, physical or mental, as these are culturally defined (“I don’t feel good”) Distinctions between shamanism in Peru and biomedical healing Shamanism: (Folk Sector) non-professionalized; education based on apprenticeship (non- formalized training); allows individuals to be treated that incorporate informal language, cultural competency, etc.; gains authority on a more individualized basis (credibility of those within society) – More so focused on cultural authority (Do people believe that the healer can actually do what they say? Personal ability of the doctor) Biomedical Healing: Legitimization (schooling, standardized training, structured relationship), organization backing individuals – More so focused on social authority (Does the society as a whole recognize the individual as a healer professionally – statistic, licenses, medical school) The 3 main theoretical orientations used in medical anthropology Evolutionary/Ecological Model: the environment in which you are in influences the nature of one’s culture; human environment interaction; how are we as humans changing the environment (superbugs, resistant bugs, etc.); is there a correlation between us and global warming? – eating habits, work, sexual activity, work, can all be factors that are cultural to affect various diseases Interpretive Perspective: ability to analyze and read culture as a book (does not particularly include the opinions of those you are observing however); culturally logically makes Critical/Economic Perspective: Primarily deals with poverty stricken areas; Political – wealth and power distributions around the world (interactions with those populations); how economics/politics shape the overall status of health Cholera in Latin America (Peru aspect) Seviche (cultural dish) Dumping of Untreated Sewage Water system not being able to handle water supplies (lack of access) How to apply different theoretical approaches to understanding cholera in Latin America Ecological Model: Interaction between the cholera bacterium and the host (movement) – virus may begin in one place and spread to others thanks to human environment interaction; messes from the boats of the seas, contamination of the food though not cleaning porperly Interpretive Perspective: People generally avoid those believe to have “cholera” and many are less likely to go the clinic and get diagnoses for fear of discrimination from social stigmatization; Balance of Hot & cold (not boiling water – they would have more of a chance of getting sick due to a cultural belief – balance exists on set of opposites as stated through the humoral theory); In Brazil, because of the large wage gap, cholera is deemed as the dog’s disease (only the poor acquire this) – therefore, they try to avoid them entirely (social stigmatization) Critical Perspective: The Cholera outbreak in Peru occurred because the Peruvian water infrastructure was in terrible shape (particularly deals with infrastructure); In Brazil, since there is a large wage gap between the richest and poorest members of society (and is primarily contracted in poor societies), there is the belief that since these conditions are not affecting them, then they shouldn’t provide the resources or funding to treat it (if there wasn’t a big wage gap then they could have easily provided public health funding to avoid the outbreak entirely) – Everyone is affected regardless of status (since workers and others bring it into wealthy homes) AA perspective (2/22) How is organ transplantation a subject of study in medical anthropology? Very culturally based in terms of ethics Some cultures do not believe in heart transplants because it’s the “seat of emotions,” while western biomedicine views the heart as a pump (Pima looks at the body as a whole) - History of disease as it relates to human culture change (Evolutionary/Ecological Perspective) Ecological focuses on the human environment interaction, they create re-emerging outbreaks of diseases that we thought we eradicated and provide new opportunities for pathogens to spread (until there was a demographic shift in urbanization) - cholera How is medical anthropology an “applied” sub discipline within anthropology? Applied anthropology – using methods and knowledge acquired and solve an issue in the world today -> cultural brokers in Public Health conventions According to Joralemon, applied medical anthropology is a puppet of biomedicine (it can be used to gain access to a particular part of people who would have thought to use biomedicine – further gives those within these communities access) – how to communicate between the local population and the health workers How can medical anthropology help to explain how humans view “the body” and “the self.” It can do so through comparing the medical views of the body cross culturally. Typically in Western societies, they more so picture it through easily being able to interchange stuff (the machine) (in biomedince it is parts rather than a whole while other cultures talk about essential part of you is gone) Questions: how is the self linked to objects in the world, in space in time, etc.? *The body (physical health) and the self (mental health) • Right to die, wife is supposed to die, they are staying with the same person, stem cell research, when the beginning of life begins, • Stem cell, liver example Why are diabetes rates among the Pima disproportionately high? Food Pyramid is more so cultural (not primarily implemented – educational aspect) Body image – larger body types are not necessarily stigmatized Government assistance, no proper food, damming of Colorado River (can not grow their own food), medical education of diabetes lacks cultural references • The long-term and short-term effects of the food/crops that the government provides to the Pima o Overall affect on their health • Understanding towards Biomedicine (lack of cultural competency when speaking with other cultures) o Lack of Effective Communication o Necessity of cultural training (in order to avoid having a huge disconnect) Diabetes primarily affects the poorer populations due to the cost of materials (if you are limited to economic resources, then you have to make a decision on food that will go much further); lifestyle Governmental subsidies (risk factors – living on settlement and eating rations) • Clinical Encounters with the Pima o Waiting times (unfamiliar with their typical cultural model) - patients non-compliant o Certain questions would provoke them to expand upon certain concepts • They tend to defer to the doctor (small tendency to ask many questions) • Provides difficulty in being compliant due to lack of understanding in one's disease (diabetes) and its diagnosis o Type of obesity - lower abdominal obesity (high fat diets) o Concept of Body Image • Western World - slim, dieting, etc. • Pima ▪ Capacity to be bigger/larger and still prosper ▪ Correlation to Diabetes • Not having the idea of being thin; however, if you have a lot of lower abdominal fat, then it increases your potential to have diabetes • Trying to introduce the "Food Pyramid"; however, it is cultural, and those from differing cultural backgrounds will not be able to correlate o Approaches that biomedical doctors suggest to those in the Pima diagnoses with diabetes • Addressed on a case-by-case basis (not trying to combat the conditions that caused the disease but to treat it) • 3 types of prevent ▪ Primary Prevention: Better educate people about the disease to those who didn't have diabetes ▪ Secondary Prevention: Tried to help people who had the symptoms of diabetes (pre-diabetic) ▪ Tertiary Prevention: Help people who already had the disease Discuss some of the obstacles to medical treatment for the Pima Much of the treatment methods were void of including cultural aspects when interacting with those in the Pima diagnosed with Diabetes (and addressing its health concern overall) o Obstacles people faced to receive treatment • Confidentiality - some people were members of society and they didn't want others to know about their own condition • L
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