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BIOL 1200 Midterm: Exam 3 Study Guide Part 3

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East Carolina University
BIOL 1200
Trip Lamb

9. Compare alternation of generations in land plants. Be sure you know the ploidy condition of each stage (Fig. 26.6). 1) The gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis. 2) Two gametes unite and form a diploid zygote. 3) The zygote develops into a multicellular diploid sporophyte. 4) The sporophyte produces unicellular haploid spores by meiosis. 5) The spores develop into multicellular haploid gametophytes. 10. Why is the term sporopollenin particularly appropriate for this tough biopolymer? Because it coats both pollen and seeds (spores). 11. Provide examples of reward and deceit modes of pollination. Reward Sweet nectar for hummingbirds. Deceit Carrion flower attracts flies with rotten smell. 12. What are the two major groups of seed plants? Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 13. Distinguish between gymnosperm and angiosperm with respect to ovule condition. Gymno (naked) ovule is not enclosed in tissue at pollination. Angio (encased) ovule is enclosed in tissue at pollination. 14. Botanically speaking, there are many more fruits than the fruits we eat. Provide a technical definition of a fruit. What is the purpose of fruit? Fruits are derived from ovaries and contain seeds. To disperse seeds. 15. Is the evolution and phylogeny of land plants well supported in the fossil record? Yes. 16. Regarding the previous question, what was the first major event? When did it occur? Land plants appeared (Might be cuticles?). It occurred 470 million years ago. 17. What is the most derived diverse group of land plants? What is the primary key innovation for this group? When did it first appear? Angiosperms. Flowers. 145 million years ago. 18. Are fungi more closely related to plants or animals? Animals. 19. What synapomorphies provide the case for question 21? Chitin, flagellated gametes with single flagellum, and the synthesis of glycogen for food storage. 20. Compare the fungal structures hyphae, mycelia, and mycorrhizae. Hyphae: The mushroom and its subterranean mycelium are a continuous network of hyphae. Mycelia: An interwoven mass of hyphae that grow into and absorb nutrients from materials. Mycorrhizae: Fungiplant interface that is a mutual relationship where the plant can grow healthier and faster and it provides the fungi with carbon compounds. 21. What principal ecological roles do fungi play? Decomposition and plant mutualism. You are responsible for the names and synapomorphies of the major green plant taxa we covered in class. Chap. 26 Eukarya: Animals 1. What is the sister taxon to Animalia? Choanoflagellates. 1
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