GLY 2010C- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 87 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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GLY 2010C
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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asthenosphere
the weak, ductile layer of rock that constitutes the lower part of the upper mantle and over which the
lithospheric plates slide
climate
the average conditions of Earth's surface environment and their variation
climate system
the global geosystem that includes all the components of the earth system and all the interactions
among these components needed to determine climate on a global scale and how it changes over time
convection
the mechanical transfer of heat energy that occurs as a heated material expands, rises, and displaces
cooler material, which is itself heated and rises to continue the cycle
core
the dense central part of Earth below the core-mantle boundary, composed primarily of iron and nickel
crust
the thin outer layer of Earth, averaging from about 8 km thick under the oceans to about 40 km thick
under the continents, consisting of relatively low-density silicates that melt at relatively low
temperatures
earth system
the collection of Earth's open, interacting, and often overlapping geosystems
fossil
a trace of an organism that has been preserved in the geologic record
geodynamo
the global geosystem that produces Earth's magnetic field, driven by convection in the outer core
geologic record
information about geologic events and processes that has been preserved in rocks as they have formed
at various times throughout Earth's history
geology
the branch of Earth science that studies all aspects of the planet: its history, its composition and internal
structure, and its surface features
geosystem
a subsystem of the Earth system that produces specific types of geologic activity
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continental drift
the large-scale movements of continents across Earth's surface driven by the plate tectonic system
convergent boundary
a boundary between lithospheric plates where the plates move toward each other and one plate is
recycled into the mantle
divergent boundary
a boundary between lithospheric plates where two plates move apart and new lithosphere is created
geodesy
the science of measuring the shape of Earth and locating points on its surface
island arc
a chain of volcanic islands formed on the overriding plate at a convergent boundary by magma that rises
from the mantle as water released from the subducting lithospheric slab causes fluid-induced melting
isochron
a contour that connects rock of equal age
magnetic anomaly
one in a pattern of long, narrow bands of high or low magnetic intensity on the seafloor that are parallel
to and almost perfectly symmetrical with respect to the crest of a mid-ocean ridge
magnetic time scale
the detailed history of Earth's magnetic field reversals as determined by measuring the thermoremanent
magnetization fo rock samples whose ages are unknown
mantle plume
a narrow, cylindrical jet of hot, solid material rising from deep within the mantle, thought to be
responsible for intraplate volcanism
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain at a divergent boundary, characterized by earthquakes, volcanism, and
rifting, all caused by the tensional forces of mantle convection that are pulling the two plates apart
Pangaea
a supercontinent that coalesced in the late Paleozoic era and comprised all present continents, then
began to break up in the Mesozoic era
plate tectonics
the theory that describes and explains the creation and destruction of Earth's lithospheric plates and
their movement over Earth's surface
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