BSC 1010 Final: Final Review Part 1

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Biological Science
BSC 1010
John Geiger

Chitin A modified form of cellulose found in the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans Lipids Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds Protein structure Alpha helix and beta pleated sheets are examples of the secondary level of Components of nucleic acids Include a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, an organic nitrogen containing base, and phosphodiester bonds. Fructose and galactose all have the same six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms, just as glucose, but they are named differently because they are alternate forms of the monosaccharide, glucose . Nucleic acids are created with phosphodiester bonds. Nitrogen and carbon are common to all organic molecules. Gasoline fuel is nonpolar and high in energy because they are largely composed of hydrocarbons. Lipids serve as important energy stores and is a major component of plasma membranes. The functional group -COOH has acidic properties and would release hydrogen ions in an aqueous (water) solution. The peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall contains a carbohydrate matrix linked together by short chains of amino acids. Nuclear pores apparently permit the passage of only proteins inward and outward, but RNA only outward. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain DNA. The Golgi apparatus and ER are organelles that participate in the synthesis and modification of enzymes targeted to the plasma membrane. The principles of cell theory or cell doctrine include the following: All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest unit of living organisms, and new cells form from pre-existing cells by cell division. The most accurate endomembrane route through which a protein is secreted from a cell is rough endoplasmic reticulum> Golgi apparatus> vesicles> plasma membrane. A match of structures and functions Cytoskeleton-microfilaments, nucleus- DNA replication, cell membrane-lipid bilayer, and Golgi apparatus-modification, processing, and sorting of macromolecules. Endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the biosynthesis of proteins that are destined for secretion by the cell. Tissues such as the gonads that produce steroids are likely to be rich in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. A description of ribosome biosynthesis and structure could include the following information: Ribosomes are composed of two subunits of RNA and proteins and ribosomal proteins are produced in the cytosol. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane in response to the concentration of one or more of the solutes. Membrane proteins are not very soluble in water, because they possess long stretches of non- polar amino acids that are hydrophobic. The cell's transactions with the environment mediated by its plasma membrane include: ingesting food as molecules and sometimes as entire cells, returning waste and other molecules back to the environment, responding to a host of chemical cues, and passing of messages to other cells. Carbohydrate chains on the outer surface of the plasma membrane: are often marker molecules that identify the cell-type. The part of a membrane protein that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of amino acids that are non-polar. Functions of a typical plasma membrane include: transport of water and bulk material, selective transport of certain molecules and material, reception of information, and expression of cellular identity. In bacteria, fungi, and plants the high internal pressure generated by osmosis is counteracted by the mechanical strength of their cell walls. The actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its conformation. Cell-walled organisms cannot carry out endocytosis. For the process of diffusion to occur molecules must move from areas of high concentration to areas of lesser concentration until equilibrium is reached. Communication among cells is a hallmark of multicellular organisms. Tight and anchoring junctions cause cells to adhere tightly to each other. Specific protein receptors are present for signal amplification, signal transduction, intracellular receptors, binding to DNA, and signaling to other cells. Paracrine signals Signals with short-lived, local effects Synaptic signaling requires neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic gap. In the digestive tract tight junctions develop connections to form a sheet that prevents leakage of small molecules. Gap junctions Small molecules or ions can pass from one cell to another A cell biologist has blocked the chemically-gated ion channels in a lab rat's liver tissue by using a chemical that prohibits binding of a signal molecule. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is commonly used to regulate signal transduction pathways because the addition or removal of a phosphate group can expose or hide potential binding sites in proteins. Allosteric sites Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates of enzymatic reactions by binding at Competitive inhibitor A molecule that closely resembles the shape of a substrate for an enzyme Oxidation gain of e- Reduction reactions loss in electrons. Exergonic reactions Reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy Enzymes have specific substrates with which they interact. Cofactors The inorganic non-protein components that participate in enzyme catalysis Calorie The unit of heat & unit of chemical energy Pseudogenes appear not to produce functional products. Rice has more genes than humans. Gene inactivation is likely to produce pseudogenes Today, gene swapping between two species infrequent but possible; it happened more often in the distant past. Genes controlling basic m
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