[BSC 1010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (33 pages long!)

105 views33 pages
Published on 7 Feb 2017
School
Course
Professor
FIU
BSC 1010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 33 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 33 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Blue text = taken from lecture
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology
Biology: study of life
Biology compasses all STEMscience, technology, engineering, math
Unifying themes in Biology:
Cell theory: a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms
and also the basic unit of reproduction.
Molecular inheritance: refers to genes and DNA
Structure and Function
Diversity via evolutionary change
Unity via evolutionary change
Cells are computers
Emergent properties of life
7 Characteristics of Life
Cellular organization
Ordered complexity
Sensitivity
Growth, development, and reproduction
Energy utilization
Homeostasis
Evolutionary adaptation
Hierarchical organization
Cellular level
Atoms: fundamental elements of matter
Molecules: clusters of atoms
Organelles: tiny structures made up of molecules
Cells: basic unit of life
Organismal level
Tissues: groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit
Organs: body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit
Organs system: group of organs
Population level
Population: group of organisms of the same species living in the same place
Species: members similar in appearance and able to inbreed
Biological community: consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place
Ecosystem level
Ecosystem: biological community and the physical habitat within which it lives together
Biosphere (our planet)
Emergent properties result from the way in which components interact, and they often cannot be deduced just from looking at the
parts themselves
much of science is purely descriptive
biology is concerned with arriving at an increasingly accurate description of nature
deductive reasoning applies general principles to predict specific results
is the reasoning used in math and philosophy
used to test the validity of general ideas in all branches of knowledge
o used to infer species of a specimen from it characteristics
inductive reasoning the logic flows in the opposite direction (specific to general)
uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles
leads to generalizations that can be tested
became important in 1600s (used by Isaac Newton)
hypothesis: a suggested explanation that accounts for those observations
those that have not been proven are retained
can be changes and refined with new data
testing a hypothesis is an experiment
a successful experiment is one in which one or more of the alternative hypotheses is demonstrated to inconsistent with the
result and is thus rejected
variables influence processes
o to evaluate alternative hypotheses about one variable, all other variables must be kept constant
In the test experiment one variable is altered in a known way to test a particular hypothesis
In the control experiment that variable is left unaltered
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 33 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
the challenge of experimental science lies in designing control experiments that isolate a particular variable from other factors that
might influence a process
successful scientific hypothesis needs to not only be useful, it needs to tell us something we wat to know
predictions provide a way to test the validity of the hypothesis
if experiment produces result inconsistent with the predictions, hypothesis must be rejected or modified
scientist use the philosophical approach of reductionism to understand a complex system by reducing it to its working parts
been the general approach of biochemistry
has limits when applied to living systems
larger problem is that complex interworking of many interconnected functions leads to emergent properties that cannot be
predicted based on the working of the parts
models provide a way to organize how we think about a problem
can also get closer to the larger picture and away from the extreme reductionist approach
suggest other experiments that can be performed to refine or test the model
the word theory is used in two ways:
as a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon, often based in some general principle
The body of interconnected concepts, supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence, explains the facts in some
area of study
Provides an indispensable framework for organizing a body of knowledge
Information generated by basic research contributes to the growing body scientific knowledge and it provides the scientific foundation
utilized by applied research
Peer review is a process of evaluation and its helps ensure that faulty research or false claims are not given the authority of
scientific fact
Charles Darwin’s contribution was a concept he called natural selection, which he proposed as a coherent, logical explanation for this
process
Evolution: modification of a species over generations
Natural selection: individuals with superior physical/behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than those
without such characteristics
Studied a wide variety of plants and animals on continents and islands and in distant seas
Variation in traits
Adaptation to environment changes
Differential reproduction (more favorable traits are picked over others) and are based on to offspring
Saw that the characteristics of similar species varied somewhat from place to place
Thought it was reasonable to assume that all these birds had descended from a common ancestor
Artificial selection often produces a great variation in traits
Predicted that the fossil record would yield intermediate links between the great groups of organisms
Also predicted the Earth was very old
Received his sharpest criticism in the area of heredity
o At the time no one had any concept of genes or how heredity works
Molecular evidence further proving Darwin’s hypothesis has been found with our increased understanding of DNA and protein
structures
Lead to development of a more accurate phylogenetic tree
In many different types of vertebras, for example, the same bones are present (homologous) indicating their evolutionary past
Means they have the same evolutionary origin, but they now differ in structure and function
Analogous structures have similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origins
By comparing the genomes of different groups of animals/plants, we can more precisely specify the degree of relationship among
the groups
All organisms alive today have descended from some simple cellular creature that arose about 3.5 BYA
Storage of hereditary information in DNA is common to all livings things
Key feature of living systems is that they are open systems that function far from thermodynamic equilibrium
Constant supply of energy is necessary to maintain a stable nonequilibrium state
o Living things are able to self-organize, creating levels of complexity that may exhibit emergent properties
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 33 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Biology compasses all stem science, technology, engineering, math. Cell theory: a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction. Molecular inheritance: refers to genes and dna. Organelles: tiny structures made up of molecules. Tissues: groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit. Organs: body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit. Population: group of organisms of the same species living in the same place. Species: members similar in appearance and able to inbreed. Biological community: consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place. Ecosystem: biological community and the physical habitat within which it lives together. Emergent properties result from the way in which components interact, and they often cannot be deduced just from looking at the parts themselves.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.