SPC 1017 Study Guide - Final Guide: Tag Question, Belongingness, Deductive Reasoning

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Published on 22 May 2017
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Semantic Triangle
Indicates direct relationship between symbols, words, and thoughts.
-Consists of Symbol, Thought, Referent.
-Charles K Ogden & Ivor Armstrong Richards.
Referent
The thing you're talking about.
Thought
Refers to words we use to think about the symbol.
Symbol
The word/representation you come up with.
Denotative Definition of Words
Dictionary Definition
Connotative Definition of Words
Feelings and associations we have about a word.
-Easily misunderstood.
Ladder of Abstraction
A diagram of how we abstract through language, classifications, types, categories.
-Low level words are concrete: umbrella, toothbrush, hair.
-High level: love, compassion, peace. = more room for miscommunication.
Why the Ladder of Abstraction is useful
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-Better analyze communications, understandings, misunderstandings.
-Help immunize self agains political propaganda, adversing, and vacant rhetoric.
-Helps you make personal adjustments as you become aware of your own abstracting.
Language Environment
Made of four elements.
1. People: who was there?
2. Their purpose: why were they there?
3. Rules of communication in the setting: can be culturally influenced.
4. Actual talk: the transcript of the conversation.
-Context is important.
Doublespeak
Refers to words deliberately constructed for political purposes and specifically intended to
impose desirable mental attitude on those using them.
-Identical to euphemism except it does not always have to do with unpleasant words.
- IRS vs Tax Man
-Dept of Transportation vs Parking Ticket People
-Operation Iraqi Freedom vs Iraq War
Euphemism
Inoffensive word or phrase that is substituted for words that may be perceived as unpleasant.
-"Passed away" vs Died
-"Restroom break vs need to piss
Language Style
The way you select and arrange words in sentences.
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Rapport Talk
Language designed to build intimacy/relationships, social networks.
-Women use this most.
Report Talk
Goal is to maintain status and attention.
-Center Stage
-Men
Powerful Talk
Talk that is directly to the point without hesitation or qualifications.
-More credible, attractive and persuasive.
-Absence of disclaimers, vocal fillers and tag questions.
Tag Question
I really liked that restaurant, "How did you like it?"
-Makes statement less powerful
-More often used by women: being more social.
Disclaimer
Making a statement followed by "but_______."
Vocal Fillers
Like, um, ya know
Dialect
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Document Summary

Indicates direct relationship between symbols, words, and thoughts. Refers to words we use to think about the symbol. Feelings and associations we have about a word. A diagram of how we abstract through language, classifications, types, categories. Low level words are concrete: umbrella, toothbrush, hair. Help immunize self agains political propaganda, adversing, and vacant rhetoric. Helps you make personal adjustments as you become aware of your own abstracting. Made of four elements: people: who was there, their purpose: why were they there, rules of communication in the setting: can be culturally influenced, actual talk: the transcript of the conversation. Refers to words deliberately constructed for political purposes and specifically intended to impose desirable mental attitude on those using them. Identical to euphemism except it does not always have to do with unpleasant words. Inoffensive word or phrase that is substituted for words that may be perceived as unpleasant. The way you select and arrange words in sentences.

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