Minoa – inhabitants of Crete during 3000BCE who had used bronze and had developed a
maritime/nautical network to suit their near-sea climate. (Palace complex).
Knossos – was a palace-dominated city-state within Minoa that actually had running
water and air conditioning and had a labyrinth for defensive purposes.
Mycenae – were inhabitants of modern-day Turkey and Asia Minor who conquered Minoa
Homer – was a blind poet who wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey
Illiad – was an epic that was the story of the Trojan War
Odyssey – was an epic that was the story of a hero named Odysseus after the Trojan War
and has more mythology than the Illiad
Polis – a city-state within Greece that had a structured society containing a hierarchy
Sparta – was a military state that had two kings and a 28 person council. They conquered the
Athenians in 430BC.
Athens – was a democracy within ancient Greece.
Had classes that were broken down to: farmers, crop rotators, aristocrats, artists, and
Cleisthenes – came into power in Athens and attempted to rid it of democratic rule.
Ensured that everything was based on residency rather than kinship.
Made a new council that consisted of 500 men
Pericles – led the Ionians (Athenians) in a revolt against Persia in 499BC and defeated Persia
Salamis – where the Ionians defeated Persia in a revolt in 499BC. (Showed Naval prowess of
Phillip of Macedon – was the ruler of a city-state known as Macedon in ancient Greece.
He compensated his army for battle
Was a Hellenist, which means that he took his favorite aspects from the various regions
conquered by his empire and integrated them into his society
Fathered Alexander the Great along with his wife Olympia.
Was killed by a guard during his marriage with his new Egyptian wife.
Alexander The Great – son of Phillip of Macedon who became Macedon’s ruler upon Phillip
of Macedon’s death
Was tutored by Aristotle
Took an army to Persia and easily conquered them
Went to Gordia and cut the Gordian Knot and proclaimed himself the ruler of Asia.
Died of malaria in 323 BCE ANCIENT ROME:
Patricians – Roman upper class who composed the Senate
Plebeians – Roman non-land holders who were free but could not sit on the Senate but may
sit in assembly
Punic Wars – Rome vs. Carthage
First Punic War was in 241BCE where Rome had conquered Sicily and Sardinia
Second Punic War was in 218BCE and ended in 201BCE
General Hannibal crossed France and the Alps to enter into today’s northern Italy
with a 20,000 man army
Romans end up winning in 201BCE but suffered heavy casualties
Carthage – founded by Phonecian sailors and had one of the strongest forces in the world at
the same time Rome had become a considerable force
Hannibal – was Carthage’s general in the second Punic War
Senate – maintained a balance in government with the monarchy. Patricians were only ones
allowed to sit here.
Pompey – represented the patrician senatorial types in Rome. Killed in Egypt, had his head
sent back to Caesar.
Crassus – represented the middle class and plebian types in Rome and is eventually killed in
battle in Syria
Julius Caesar – was Crassus’s right-hand man
He eventually went to battle with Spain and came back very successful and was dubbed
the ruler of the forests and roads
He eventually crossed the Rubican River and was declared undisputed leader of the
Had Pompey killed in Egypt
Made citizenship easier to attain
Triumvirate – The three leaders that arose in Rome: Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar.
Marc Antony – was Julius Caesar’s understudy who took over after Julius Caesar was
assassinated and made a full-fledged empire of Rome.
He was ran out of Rome by Marc Antony and settled in Rome where he married
Cleopatra and later, committed suicide.
Octavian – was also known as Caesar Augustus and was another understudy of Julius Caesar.
He ran Marc Antony out of Rome and became ruler of Egypt and Rome upon Marc
Cleopatra – ruler of Egypt at the time of Marc Antony’s reign and married Marc Antony
when he was forced to flee Rome. She then committed suicide with Marc Antony.
Constantine – became ruler of Rome in 312AD and converted to Christianity MEDIEVAL EUROPE:
Charlemagne – was crowned emperor of the holy Roman empire in 800AD
Sought to unify the Germanic and Frankish empires and wanted to instill Christianity
Holy Roman Empire – followed chivalry, elected a pope to make decisions and maintain
Christianity, and led Crusades to instill Christianity into other parts of the world.
Crusades – the term “crusade” comes from the Latin word for “cross”. These crusades were
conducted by men from western and Eastern Europe and were conducted to quell the
advancement of the Muslims in Jerusalem. The crusades increased religious power within
The First Crusade – was a result of Pope Irvin II’s preaching and will and lasted from
1095-1101. This crusade was somewhat successful in that the Christians actually took
over Jerusalem and maintained it for about 50 years until the Muslims took it back
The Second Crusade – lasted from 1147-1149 and was completely unsuccessful as the
crusade was unable to even fight their way to Jerusalem
The Third Crusade – was not completely unsuccessful as it was led by Richard the
Lionhearted, and the crusade was able to overtake northern Jerusalem but was unable to
overtake the rest of it.
The Fourth Crusade – was started by Pope Innocent III and lasted from 1201-1204 and
ended becoming a part of the fight with Venice vs. Constantinople and didn’t ever make
it to the Middle East
The Children’s Crusade – was started in 1212 and failed to make it to the Middle East as
the kids boarded ships that sold them to slavery in Africa. (Opened up trade to outside
world, opened up warfare based on religion. Returned to past about holy land).
The Black Death – was the name given to the plague of 1348 that had originated in China but
was carried to on rats that rode on ships to India, Egypt, and Persia
Symptoms included boils that would appear on the body that marked that person to only
have days to live
Feudalism – service or labor being exchanged for the holding of land. It is also a system of
Serfdom – was the status of peasants in relation to feudalism. Essentially, a peasant would
work a large portion of land and provide for his lord in exchange for a much smaller portion
of land that he could live on and thrive off of and be provided with protection
Chivalry – a form of etiquette in medieval Europe and was a code of conduct amongst nobles
John Wycliffe – was considered a heretic of the Catholic church and had the Bible translated
into English and did not agree with the sacrament or the Pope. (From England, enjoyed
protection of English King). John Huss – was a Bohemian heavily influenced by Wycliffe’s work who was burned at the
stake by the Catholic church for heresy. (From Czechoslovakia)
Martin Luther – disagreed with the selling of indulgences to receive forgiveness and instead
believed in prayer for forgiveness and giving alms to the poor. He proclaimed this in a
Ninety-Five Thesis that he nailed to church, and he separated himself from the Catholic
Church in doing so. (Justification by faith was his movement, said that faith was enough to
get to heaven.)
Nine-Five Thesis – proclaimed that one must pray to God for forgiveness instead of the
purchasing of indulgences to be forgiven. He also stated that the Pope cannot offer
forgiveness and that only God can do so.
Indulgences - the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have
already been forgiven
Johan Tetzel – sold indulgences for the Catholic church. Absolution of your sins for money.
Justification By Faith – how religious a person is determines how much faith they have. Not
how much they sacrifice, etc. (Started by Martin Luther)
John Calvin – wanted church and state to be synonymous and did so by gaining control over
all religious reformation. Believed in Pre-destination, but also followed Martin Luther’s
teachings about justification by faith.
Predestination – all events have been willed by God. Thus, some were willed for salvation,
and others were willed for eternal damnation
Ulrich Zwingli – was originally a parish priest within the Catholic Church but became anti-
papal in the mid-1520’s and protested against the Catholic church by eating meat on Ash
Wednesday. He was eventually hunted down by Swiss authorities and killed in battle ANABAPTISTS:
Huguenots – French Protestants. Huge minority in France.
Anglicanism – church created by Henry VIII so that he may attain a divorce and still remain
part of a church. It was made the church of England so that its spoils may go to the state
rather than the church. Its “papal figure” would be known as the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Henry VIII – broke with the Catholic Church in 1534 and created the Anglican Church so
that he may attain a divorce and still remain part of a church. The Act of Supremacy of 1534
legitimized his separation from the Roman Church.
Act of Supremacy of 1534 – document that legitimized Henry VII’s separation from Roman
Elizabeth I – was Henry VII’s daughter who became illegitimate after her mother’s execution
but eventually came to the throne in 1558 and re-established the English Protestant Church
Rejected marriage from the Spanish throne and went on to defeat their navy in war
Counter-Reformation – the Catholic’s attempt to counter Protestantism
Council of Trent – a series of meeting that lasted from 1545-1563 where Catholic officials