[BSC 2010] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

138 views23 pages
29 Nov 2016
School
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

FSU
BSC 2010
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
9/7/16
Chapter 3 Water
Chemical equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reactions
occur at the sane rate
Water is the biological medium on Earth
Water is the only common substance to exist in all three physical states of
matter.
In water, the electrons of the polar convalent bonds spend more time near
the oxygen then hydrogen.
Four of water’s properties that facilitate an environment for life are
o Cohesive behavior
Hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together, helps the
transport of water against gravity in plants
o Ability to moderate temp
Water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases stored heat
to cooler air
o Expansion upon freezing
o Versatility as a solvent
A solution is a liquid that is a completely homogeneous
mixture of substances
A solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution
The solute is the substance that is dissolved
An aqueous solution is one in which water is the solvent
Surface tension is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion
A calorie (cal) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g
of water by 1°C
Kcal = 1000 cal
The joule (J) is another unit of energy where
1 J = 0.239 cal, or 1 cal = 4.184 J
The specific heat of water is 1 cal/g/°C
Water resists changing its temperature because of its high specific heat
Heat absorbed when hydrogen bonds break
Heat released when hydrogen bonds form
Evaporation = liquid to gas
Ice floats in liquid water because hydrogen bonds in ice are more ordered
making it less dense
Water’s greatest density at 4 C
A hydrophilic substance is one that has an
affinity for water
A hydrophobic substance is one that does not have an affinity for water
Adding certain solutes, called acids and bases, modifies the concentrations of
H+ and OH
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Acid = increases H+ concentration
Base = reduces H+ concentration
Buffers are substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and
OH in a solution
Chapter 4 Carbon
Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other molecules that distinguish living
matter are all composed of carbon compounds
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon
Stanley Miller’s classic experiment demonstrated the abiotic synthesis of
organic compounds
Electron configuration is the key to an atom’s characteristics
Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules
Carbon chains vary in length and shape
Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and
hydrogen
Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different
structures and properties
o Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their
atoms
o Cis-trans isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial
arrangements
o Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images
of each other
Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend on the carbon Skelton
and on the chemical groups attached to it
Functional groups are most commonly involved in chemical reactions
Hydroxyl Group
o Compound name alcohol
o (-OH)
o Ex. Ethanol
Carbonyl Group
o Compound name Ketone or aldehyde
o (>C=0(
o Ex. Acetone or Propanol
Carboxyl Group
o Carboxylic acid, or organic acid
o (-COOH)
o Acetic acid (sour taste)
Amino Group
o Compound name - Amine
o (-NH2)
o Glycine
Sulfhydryl Group
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class