[ZOO 3713C] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (25 pages long!)

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FSU
ZOO 3713C
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Deuterostomata
Echinodermata and all more derived
Sea lilies, sea cucumbers, starfish, urchins
Deuterostomy: The first invagination, the blastopore, becomes the anus. The second
invagination becomes the mouth
Radial cleavage: Each cell division creates an equal sized cell; symmetrical cleavage
Pharyngotremata
Hemichordata and all more derived
Acorn worm, Dolichoglossus, Saccoglossus
Pharyngeal slits & pharyngeal pores that lead to them and can be seen on the body
Pharyngeal slits: Perferations in the wall of the pharynx that allow water to flow through
Dorsal hollow nerve cord: Dorsal is thicker than ventral & on top of the body
The primitive condition is the ventral nerve cord, the derived is the dorsal nerve
cord; hemichordates have both
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Chordata (chordates)
Urochordata and all more derived
Tunicates, cephalochordates, Paedomorphic sea squirts
Notochord & Post Anal Tail in the larval stage
Notochord found in larval tunicates and cephalochordates. It is a flexible, rod like
backbone that is homologous to the intervertebral discs in vertebrates
Motile larva & Sessile adult
Endostyle: Longitudinal (on the ventral side opposite of tube) ciliated groove on the
pharynx (giant grenade looking thing) that makes mucus and collects food particles
SLIDE OF ENDOSTYLE AND POST ANAL TAIL
Somitichordata
Cephalochordata and more derived
Amphioxus, lancelet, branchistoma
Dorsal and Ventral Aorta
Ventral carries deoxygenated blood to the pharynx
Dorsal carries oxygenated blood from the pharynx to the tissues
Dorsal aorta is beneath the notochord
Dorsal nerve cord is above the notochord
Myomeres: Skeletal muscle separated by connective tissue & attach
to the notochord (at the top)
The adult amphoxius has a notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord,
Pharyngeal slits, endostyle, dorsal & ventral aorta, myomeres
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