CLT-2049 Study Guide - Final Guide: Oligospermia, Salpingectomy, Diuresis

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18 Jan 2016
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Chapter 10: The Digestive System
I. Anatomy and Physiology Terms
Combining Form Denition
Abdomen/o Abdomen
An/o anus
Append/o, appendic/o appendix
Bil/i bile
Cec/o Blind intestine, cecum
Chol/e Bile, gall
Choledoch/o Common bile duct
Col/o, colon/o colon
Cyst/o Bladder,sac
Dent/o teeth
Duoden/o Twelve, duodenum
Enter/o Small intestine
Esophag/e, esophag/o Gullet, esophagus
Gastr/o stomach
Gingiv/o gums
Gloss/o Tongue
Hepat/o liver
Ile/o To roll, ileum
Jejun/o Empty, jejunum
Lingu/o tongue
Or/o mouth
Pancreat/o Sweetbread, pancreas
Peps/o, pept/o digestion
Peritone/o To stretch over, peritoneum
Proct/o Rectum or anus
Pylor/o pylorus
Rect/o rectum
Sial/o saliva
Sigm/o The letter s, sigmoid colon
Stomat/o Mouth
Digestive= “to divide, dissolve, or set in order”
GI Tract= gastrointestinal tract. The organs form a long continuous tube that
includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine , and large
intestine.
Small intestine= 3 segments: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Large Intestine= 3 segments: cecum, colon, and rectum
Accessory organs= contribute to digestion, mainly by secreting enzymes and
other chemicals into the GI tract; they include the salivary glands, liver,
gallbladder, and pancreas.
II. Signs and Symptoms of the Digestive System:
Prex Denition
a- Without, absence of
Dia- Through
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Dys- Bad, abnormal, painful, di5cult
Re- back
Combining Form Denition
Bil/i bile
Flux/o 8ow
Gastr/o Stomach
Halit/o Breath
Hemat/o blood
Hepat/o liver
Peps/o, pept/o digestion
Phag/o Eat, swallow
Steat/o fat
Su#x Denition
-algia Condition of pain
-dynia Condition of pain
-emesis Vomiting
-emia Condition of blood
-ia Condition of
-megaly Abnormally large
-osis Condition of
-rrhea discharge
Key Terms:
Apagia= the inability to swallow
Ascites= an accumulation of 8uid within the peritoneal cavity that produces
an enlarged abdomen. Can be a sign of liver disease, congestive heart failure,
or irritation to the peritoneum.
Constipation= infrequent or incomplete bowel movements. Can be a sign of
an intestinal disorder
Diarrhea= a frequent discharge of watery fecal material
Dyspepsia= condition of di5cult digestion. Aka indigestion
Flatus= presence of gas, or air, in the GI tract
Gastrodynia= symptom of stomach pain. Aka gastralgia
Halitosis= bad breath
Hematemesis= vomiting blood. Can be a sign of a serious digestive disorder
Hepatomegaly= abnormal enlargement of the liver
Jaundice= a yellowish-orange coloring of the skin. Results from the
accumulation of bile pigments in the blood stream that are normally removed
by the liver
Nausea= a symptom of dizziness that includes an urge to vomit. When its
accompanied by vomiting it’s abbreviated “N&V”
Re+ux= a backward 8ow of material in the GI tract, or regurgitation. “back
8ow”
Steatorrhea= abnormal levels of fat in the feces, can be a sign of digestive
malfunction. “Discharge of fat”
III. Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System:
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Prex Denition
An- Without, absence of
Dys- Bad, abnormal, painful, di5cult
Mal- bad
Combining Form Denition
Aden/o Gland
Appendic/o Appendix
Cheil/o Lip
Chol/e Bile,gall
Cholecyst/o Gallbladder
Choledoch/o Common bile duct
Cirrh/o Orange
Col/o Colon
Diverticul/o Diverticulum
Duoden/o Twelve, duodenum
Enter/o Small intestine
Esophag/e, Esophag/o Gullet, esophagus
Gastr/o Stomach
Gingiv/o Gums
Gloss/o Tongue
Hem/o Blood
Hepat/o Liver
Lip/o Fat
Lith/o stone
Orex/o appetite
Pancreat/o Sweetbread, pancreas
Parot/o Parotid gland
Pept/o Digestion
Peritone/o To stretch over, peritoneum
Polyp/o Small growth
Proct/o Rectum or amus
Rect/o Rectum
Sial/o Saliva
Volv/o To roll
Su#x Denition
-al Pertaining to
-ectasis Expansion, dilation
-ia Condition of
-iasis Condition of
-ic Pertaining to
-itis In8ammation
-malacia Softening
-megaly Abnormally large
-oid Resembling
-oma Tumor
-osis Condition of
-pathy Disease
-penia Abnormal reduction in number,
de>ciency
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