Study Guide Test 5.docx

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Communication Science and Disorders
Course Code
SPA 2001

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Tiffany Carpenter Study Guide: Test 5 Chapters 8 & 10 Where there are extra spaces put in, write your own examples for practice! J Chapter 8 Prevalence and Incidence Rates for Stuttering • Stuttering: involuntary repetitions of sounds and syllables, sound prolongations, and  broken words. • Incidence is about 1% • Some children naturally recover.  Types of Normal   (Between­word)   Disfluencies  • Multisyllabic whole­word repetitions o Ex: I’m going­going home. o • Phrase repetition/interjection o Ex: She hit­ she hit me. o • Revisions o Ex: I like, uh, ya know, big boats. o Ex: He went, he came back. o  Types of Stuttered   (Within­word)   Disfluencies  • Sound/syllable repetitions o Ex: He’s a b­b­b­boy. o G­g­g­g­go away. o Yes, puh­puh­please. o • Sound prolongation o Ex: Sssssssee me swing! o T—oronto is cool. o • Broken word o Base­(pause)­ball. o Monosyllabic whole word repetitions: normal/stuttered disfluency.  Example: I­I­I hit the ball.  Developmental vs. Neurogenic Stuttering • Developmental stuttering: begins in the preschool years o Most common form of stuttering o Disfluencies usually occur on content words (nouns, verbs) o People with developmental stuttering usually exhibit secondary characteristics  and anxiety about speaking o Stuttering usually occurs on the initial syllables of words o Occurs between ages 2 and 5 o Bloodstein Phases • Neurogenic stuttering: Usually associated with neurological disease or trauma o Disfluencies occur on function words (conjunctions, prepositions) o People with neurogenic stuttering do NOT usually exhibit any other  chracteristics. o Widely dispersed through the speaker’s utterances o Sufferers do NOT improve with reading/singing Bloodstein Phases Phase Age Descriptions One 2­6 years • Stuttering is episodic • Most stuttering occurs when the child is excited or  upset • Sound/syllable repetitions are the dominant speech  feature • Child seems unaware Two Elementary  • Stuttering is chronic school • Stuttering occurs on content words (nouns, verbs) • Child regards him/herself as a stutterer Three 8 years­ • Stuttering is situational (speaking on the phone,  adultood speaking to a large group) • Certain words are regarded as more difficult than  others • Circumlocutions and word substitutions are  frequent Four 8 years­  • Stuttering is at its apex of development adulthood • There is fearful anticipations of stuttering • Certain sounds, words, and speaking situations are  avoided • Increased circumlocutions and words subs are  present Theories and Conceptualizations of Stuttering • Theories o Organic Theory: an actual physical cause o Behavioral Theory: stuttering is a learned response to conditions external to the  individual o Psychological Theory: stuttering is a neurotic symptom with ties to unconscious  needs and internal conflicts • Conceptualizations o Covert Repair Hypothesis: states that stuttering is a reaction to some flaw in the  speech production plan o Demands and Capacities Model (DCM): asserts that stuttering develops when  the environmental demands placed on a child to produce fluent speech exceed the  child’s physical and learned capacities. Basically, they’ve got too much pressure  on them­ just like us college students! o EXPLAN Model: stuttering results from a failure in normal interactions between  the PLAN and the EX process.  PLAN: the linguistic process of language formation  EX: the motor activity related to production of language Therapeutic Techniques Used With Young Children • The Evaluation o Detailed analysis of child’s speech behaviors  The SLP will measure the duration frequency of disfluencies o Stuttering Prediction Instrument (SPI)  Yields a numerical score based on a number of stuttering­related  behaviors such as the durations of disfluencies and stuttering frequency.  o Therapy is usually recommended if two or more of the following behaviors  are observed:   Sound prolongations constitute more than 25% of the total  disfluencies produced by the child  Instances of sound or syllable repetitions or sound prolongations on  the first syllables of words during iterative speech tasks (e.g. iterative  productions of pa­ta­ka, pa­taka, pa­ta­ka)  Loss of eye contact on more than 50% of the child’s utterances  A scores of 18 or more on the SPI  At least one adult expressing concern about the child’s speech  fluency skills. • Indirect Stuttering Intervention o This approach does not explicitly try to change or modify the child’s speech  fluency, but instead focuses on the child, the child’s parents, and the child’s  environment. • Direct Stuttering Intervention o Explicit and direct attempts to change the child’s speech fluency and related  behaviors o “Hard” and “Easy” speech are introduced  Hard= rapid and tense (ssssssssnake)  Easy= slow and relaxed. Think easy­going.  o SLP teaches the child strategies that will help him/her change from hard speech 
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