Study Guide: Test 5
Chapters 8 & 10
Where there are extra spaces put in, write your own examples for practice! J
Prevalence and Incidence Rates for Stuttering
• Stuttering: involuntary repetitions of sounds and syllables, sound prolongations, and
• Incidence is about 1%
• Some children naturally recover.
Types of Normal (Betweenword) Disfluencies
• Multisyllabic wholeword repetitions
o Ex: I’m goinggoing home.
• Phrase repetition/interjection
o Ex: She hit she hit me.
o Ex: I like, uh, ya know, big boats.
o Ex: He went, he came back.
Types of Stuttered (Withinword) Disfluencies
• Sound/syllable repetitions
o Ex: He’s a bbbboy.
o Gggggo away.
o Yes, puhpuhplease.
• Sound prolongation
o Ex: Sssssssee me swing!
o T—oronto is cool.
• Broken word
Monosyllabic whole word repetitions: normal/stuttered disfluency.
Example: III hit the ball. Developmental vs. Neurogenic Stuttering
• Developmental stuttering: begins in the preschool years
o Most common form of stuttering
o Disfluencies usually occur on content words (nouns, verbs)
o People with developmental stuttering usually exhibit secondary characteristics
and anxiety about speaking
o Stuttering usually occurs on the initial syllables of words
o Occurs between ages 2 and 5
o Bloodstein Phases
• Neurogenic stuttering: Usually associated with neurological disease or trauma
o Disfluencies occur on function words (conjunctions, prepositions)
o People with neurogenic stuttering do NOT usually exhibit any other
o Widely dispersed through the speaker’s utterances
o Sufferers do NOT improve with reading/singing
Phase Age Descriptions
One 26 years • Stuttering is episodic
• Most stuttering occurs when the child is excited or
• Sound/syllable repetitions are the dominant speech
• Child seems unaware
Two Elementary • Stuttering is chronic
• Stuttering occurs on content words (nouns, verbs)
• Child regards him/herself as a stutterer
Three 8 years • Stuttering is situational (speaking on the phone,
adultood speaking to a large group)
• Certain words are regarded as more difficult than
• Circumlocutions and word substitutions are
Four 8 years • Stuttering is at its apex of development
adulthood • There is fearful anticipations of stuttering
• Certain sounds, words, and speaking situations are
• Increased circumlocutions and words subs are
present Theories and Conceptualizations of Stuttering
o Organic Theory: an actual physical cause
o Behavioral Theory: stuttering is a learned response to conditions external to the
o Psychological Theory: stuttering is a neurotic symptom with ties to unconscious
needs and internal conflicts
o Covert Repair Hypothesis: states that stuttering is a reaction to some flaw in the
speech production plan
o Demands and Capacities Model (DCM): asserts that stuttering develops when
the environmental demands placed on a child to produce fluent speech exceed the
child’s physical and learned capacities. Basically, they’ve got too much pressure
on them just like us college students!
o EXPLAN Model: stuttering results from a failure in normal interactions between
the PLAN and the EX process.
PLAN: the linguistic process of language formation
EX: the motor activity related to production of language
Therapeutic Techniques Used With Young Children
• The Evaluation
o Detailed analysis of child’s speech behaviors
The SLP will measure the duration frequency of disfluencies
o Stuttering Prediction Instrument (SPI)
Yields a numerical score based on a number of stutteringrelated
behaviors such as the durations of disfluencies and stuttering frequency.
o Therapy is usually recommended if two or more of the following behaviors
Sound prolongations constitute more than 25% of the total
disfluencies produced by the child
Instances of sound or syllable repetitions or sound prolongations on
the first syllables of words during iterative speech tasks (e.g. iterative
productions of pataka, pataka, pataka)
Loss of eye contact on more than 50% of the child’s utterances
A scores of 18 or more on the SPI
At least one adult expressing concern about the child’s speech
• Indirect Stuttering Intervention
o This approach does not explicitly try to change or modify the child’s speech
fluency, but instead focuses on the child, the child’s parents, and the child’s
• Direct Stuttering Intervention
o Explicit and direct attempts to change the child’s speech fluency and related
o “Hard” and “Easy” speech are introduced Hard= rapid and tense (ssssssssnake)
Easy= slow and relaxed. Think easygoing.
o SLP teaches the child strategies that will help him/her change from hard speech