SPC-1017 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Group Conflict, Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning

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11 Jun 2015
SPC 1017 Fundamentals of Speech
Summer C 2014
Exam II Study Guide
General: This exam will consist of 50 multiple choice items derived from both the material
presented in your text and in class discussions. The items from the text will be drawn from
chapters 5-7, 9-11 and 15 (persuasive speaking 405-424). There will be several questions from
material presented during the first three weeks and those areas are indicated below.
Text Items:
Chapter 5: Listening
The steps of the Integrated Listening Model (ILM)
Listening preparation, receiving, constructive meaning, responding, and remembering
The four styles of listening (be able to explain and identify)
People listening styleconcerned w/ other’s feelings; you see out common interests
(couples, families, and best friends)
Action listening styleprecise, error-free presentations, and you are likely to be
impatient with disorganization (boss might ask for report of how company is doing,
expect this report to be focused and to the point)
Content listening style—prefer complex and challenging info; since this info is generally
abstract, you can listen w/o emotional involvement and then evaluate info before you
make a judgment (doctor might ask colleagues how a patient should be treated, b/c of
his training & experience he will not have difficulty understanding a complex medical
Time style listeningprefer brief and hurried interaction with others and often let
others know how much time they have to make the point (news people getting ready
for a TV newscast, need to get info quickly and efficiently b/c they are always working
against the clock)
The six kinds of listening (be able to explain and identify)
Discriminative listeningbeing sensitive to both verbal and nonverbal changesthe
sounds and sights of communication (subtle emotional variations in a voice allow
mothers to know instantly when a child is upset)
Comprehensive listeningunderstanding what others say because you are aware of,
grasp, and can make sense of the message (complex b/c depends on fundamentals such
as vocabulary & grammar)
Appreciative lisitening(most often used) listening for pleasure (listening to a
Critical listeningmake judgments about what the other person is saying (aka
evaluative listening)(you seek to assess the truth of his or her message and you judge
what he or she says against your own valuesmake a determination of worth)
Informativeoccurs when your primary concern is to understand the message (most
common kind that occurs in college) (you use it to obtain directions, understand others,
solve problems, and share interests)
Empatheticmentally indentifying w/ the character and experiences of another person
(emotional projection of yourself onto others’ livesit is all about feelings)
Gender differences in listening
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Women are interested in relationships and networking; men in competitive
Women are most likely to be listeners
Women are likely to make in a business setting is to smile and wait their turn to talk
while men just jump in the conversation
Factors in and barriers to effective listening
Closed-mindedness, laziness, insincerity, opinionatedness, knowledge, empathy-respect,
attention span, physical well-being, skills and abilities, boredom
Message/information overload; it can be as simple as a single message carrying too
much info at one time you’re prompted to say “hold on, hold on, slow down”
Your attitude (tense, worried, anxious, troubled), knowledge (understanding, expertise),
and abilities and skills (adeptness, talent, training)
State of mind b/c listening is hard work
Setting or openmindness (unprejudiced, neutral, nonjudgmental)
Lazinessavoid listening if subject is complex or b/c it takes too much time
Close-mindednessrefuse to maintain a relaxing and agreeable environment or refuse
to relate to and benefit from the speaker’s ideas
Opinionatednessdisagree/ argue outwardely or inwardely w/ the speaker; become
emotional or excited when the speaker’s views differ from yours
Insincerityavoid eye contact while listening; pay attention only to the speaker’s word
rather than the speaker’s feelings
Boredomlack interest in the speaker’s subject; become impatient w/ the speaker;
daydream or become preoccupied w/ something else when listening
Inattentivenessconcentrate on the speaker’s mannerisms or delivery rather than on
the message; become distracted by noise from office equipment, telephone, other
conversation, etc.
Cognitive dissonance, anxiety, control, passiveness
Cognitive dissonanceoccurs when you feel conflict b/c you hold 2 or more attitudes
that are in opposition to each other (you knew you would have difficulty listening to the
teacher b/c you were told he had high standards but his warmth in explaining the
material made it difficult for you to listen b.c it didn’t conform to what you had been
Anxietydisturbance that occurs in your mind regarding some uncertain event,
misgiving, or worry (many college courses create anxiety b/c so much is uncertain- it
cannot be avoided)
Controldesire to have governing influence over a situation and controlling listeners
(some people prefer talking to listening; they seek to control their listeners by looking
for ways to talk about themselves and their experiencesignore nonverbal signals;
listeners are bored
Passivenesssuspension of the rational functions and the reduction of any physical
functions to their lowest possible degree (passive people believe that listening involves
no worknot the case!)
The differences between good and poor listeners
Good listeners
o Use eye contact appropriately
o Is attentive and alert to a speaker’s verbal/nonverbal behavior
o Patient and doesn’t interrupt (waits for speaker to finish)
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o Responsive, using verbal/nonverbal expressions
o Asks questions in a nonthreatening tone
o Paraphrases, restates, or summarizes what the speaker says
o Provides constructive (verbal/nonverbal) feedback
o Empathetic (works to understand the speaker)
o Shows interest in the speaker as a person
o Demonstrates a caring attitude and is willing to listen
o Doesn’t criticize, nonjudgmental
o Open-minded
Poor listeners
The percentage of time devoted to various communication skills
45%-- listening
30%-- speaking
Chapter 6: Interpersonal Relationships
Factors influencing interpersonal attractiveness
Physical attraction, perceived gain, similarities, differences, proximity, and
The seven motives for interpersonal communication
Pleasure, affection, inclusion, escape, relaxation, control, health, and cybermotivation
Figure 6-1 (page 162) How people begin conversations
Introduction, greeting, health
Introduce yourself in a way that give the other person a way to respond to you (will
uncover what you have in common)
Give people a way to remember your name
Personalize your greeting (if you know something about the person, work it into your
Owned messages
(aka I-message) an acknowledgment of subjectivity by a message-sender through the
use of first-person-singular terms
I, my, my, mine“responsible” communicators are those who own their thoughts and
feelings by employing these pronouns
Useful for conveying negative information
“you make me mad”== (you-message)
“I’m feeling angry”== (owned message)
The three types of self-disclosure
A process in which one person tells another person something he or she would not
reveal to just anyone
The Johari Window and how it describes self-disclosure
offers a way to picture the entire process of giving and receiving feedback and, as
necessary, make adjustments when relationships call for it
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