Family Relationships: A Life Span Development Approach [NOTES Part 15] - 4.0ed the course

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Family and Child Sciences
FAD 2230
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Chapter 11 – Family Stress and Crises, Violence Among Intimates  Power • What is power? • Who has power? • Who doesn’t have power?  Types of Power • Coercive Power- power that individuals have to punish another individual • Reward Power- (opposite of ^) ability to reward someone (monetary, attention, praise, etc.) • Expert Power- power that an individual has when they have expertise in a certain area; professor has power over student/classroom • Informational power- power you have when you have information that someone else doesn’t have (blackmail, you hear something on the radio and you share it with others); you don’t have to be an expert on the information you have, you just have to have the information • Referent power- power that an individual who doesn’t have a lot of power gives to their superior; people who really respect authority will look to them (“give them authority”) • Legitimate power- power given to someone by another body/entity/person; police officers are given authority by the state; attorneys have the power by bar association to practice and defend the law but they still don’t have power to arrest  Marital Power • First studied in 1950’s • Blood and Wolfe: interviewed wives only → Resource hypothesis: the spouse with more resources has more power in marriage (ex.- bringing home a paycheck, providing for the family) → What resources do spouses bring? Women also brought some at the time (love, nurturing, home-making, cooking, cleaning) → Most families (72%) had “relatively egalitarian” decision-making structure ⇒ 25% = husbands make decisions ⇒ 3% = wives made decisions → Criticisms of Study ⇒ What domains men and women have power over • Women = food, shopping, cleaning • Men = where they live, jobs, finances ⇒ “Having the power to make trivial decisions is not the same as having the power to make important ones”  Resources and Gender • Men tend to have more resources → Money → Education → Status → Physical strength → Alternatives to marriage • Women tend to be most equal with men at the beginning of marriage → First pregnancy and birth diminishes women’s resources ⇒ Female may take time off and lose income ⇒ Dependent on males to be father and earner ⇒ Have less energy to resist dominance of husband; “pick your battles” • Culture, resources, and gender → Resource theory doesn’t explain everything → Culture gives husbands absolute legitimate power → Interaction of legitimate and resource; in this case, the “someone else” is the culture → Legitimacy and resources ⇒ If the culture gives the husband power and the husband has greater resources (is dominant) = the husband will be the dominant one • He has the resources and society backs him up ⇒ If the culture gives the husband power but the husband has less resources = he is still dominant ⇒ Culture doesn’t give power but husband has more resources = husband is probably dominant, not as often ⇒ Culture doesn’t give power and husband has less resources = egalitarian marriage or wife- dominant  Power and social class • Most classes perceive that they have egalitarian marriage; upper class marriage are least likely to be egalitarian – may be a situation where there is one spouse who makes a large deal of money and one doesn’t work, that one spouse has more resources/power • Why would middle and lower class marriage be egalitarian? In both, it’s likely that both partners have to work and contribute for the family to succeed; if both have resources, both will have some sense of power  Future of Marital Power • Working women are happier in their marriages → More financial freedom, not reliant on husbands 100% when it comes to finances → Psychosocial benefits – develop their own identities, make connections • Mutually economically dependent couples (Dual-income couples) → Couples in which each partner earns 40-50% of the income • Women’s resources may be increased in value: caring, emotional support, warmth, nurturing; when demand goes down, want goes up • Equality between men and women may occur in overall society  Four couple types • Heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabitating, lesbian, and gay • Married and cohabitating hetero are least equal – they have the most power differences and traditional gender roles • Gay and lesbian share domestic duties more (including child-rearing) – no gender roles • Gays tend to be more competitive; lesbians are more relationally focused • Peer marriages → 60/40 sharing of power • Near peer marriages (partners want to have equality) → Influenced by arrival of children and maximizing income • Traditional marriages → Husband dominated, but w
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