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ONE-Note Midterm Exam notes.docx

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Florida State University
AMH 2020
Tarah Luke

U.S. prior to reconstruction  British take control and Americans are unsettled  Boycott  tea party  revolution  U.S. has independent states then come together o Problems just as not uniformed currency; problem with economy o Problems with lack of government o Slaves  1616 first slaves came to the US. They worked for several years than became free. Not racial at first  slavery became racial  North becomes industrialized  Election of Abraham Lincoln 1860  Lincoln believed as long as slavery did not spread, it would disappear.  South Carolina was the first state to succeed  Lincoln wanted a unified America  Lincoln only brought up the slavery issue in the war when the North needed more motive to win over the south  Emancipation proclamation freed the slaves living in the United States  Industrialization kicks in and the North wins the civil war  Tension after the civil war  Lincoln was the best hope for reconstruction of the North and the South  Lincoln shot and died at play  Andrew Johnson becomes president (1865 – 1869) Decmocrat and Southerner didn’t learn to read until early 20’s  Andrews main goal was to bring the North whites and south whites to come together. Did not care about the blacks  Lincolns plan for reconstruction o Lincoln wanted 10% southeners to sign loyalty oath o Each state would promise to abolish slavery o Each former confederate state would agree to provide education to free them and educate the slaves o Lincoln was worried without education slaves would live the same life before freedom o Lincoln never mention black civil rights or voting rights o Congress is worried Lincolns plan is to light on the south th o 1/4 of mississippi’s money to brought to buying o 1879 cotton goes back to normal  Johnsons plan for reconstruction o No loyalty oaths for south o If you have over 20,000 you must go to the white house o Insists every state in south radify 13 amendment (abolish slavery) o No concern for African American rights  Radical republicans were lead by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner o Wanted to help blacks and go against the south o Leaders in the confederacy was taking seats in congress and that pissed the radical republicans off o Very vengeful o Institution of black codes they did not agree with; black codes gave African Americans rules such as who they would marry; how far they could travel, etc. (replaced slave rules) o Decided they didn’t want Jonhson in office as president  1865 Freedmans Bureau was initially proposed under Lincoln o The Freedmans Bureau would provide education for the freedmans (schools were built) o Johnson veto’d this bill o Radical republicans didn’t not agree with the veto and pass the civil right act of 1866  Civil rights act of 1866 o Johnson did not agree, got drunk, gave a speech to bash the radical republicans o Act of 1866 still passes o Then Johnson decides to pass thethreedman Bureau  The radcial republicans passed the 14 amendment in 1868 which defined citizenship  Native Americans are still not considered American Citizens for about another 30 years  Congressional or radical reconstruction acts (1867) o Reconstruction acts divides into 5 districts  Southerners cant be incharge of military districts o Radical republicans enforce the blacks muat have the right to vote  Southerners did not agree  Causes conflict with the south  Impeachment of Andrew Johnson o Johnson tries to get the people to vote for the radical republicans o The radical republicans brings up 11 accusations to get him impeached  10 year office act says a president can not remove cabinet members that have been approved by senate without approval from them  Johnson removed Edwin Stanton who was a radical republican without permission from the senate  Congress voted to impeach Johnson  Edmund ross of senate was the one to vote and voted to keep Johnson (35-19); he was bribed by Johnson  Johnson was impeached but stayed in office  After office went to be on senate  Election of 1868 o US grant running for presidency as a republican; slogan “let us have peace” with reconstruction o Grant won against Horatio Seymour th o Grant passes 15 amendment (1870) o The 15 amendments give all blacks the right to vote o Grant won election by blacks o Grant elected again in 1872  Radical Reconstruction in the South o A lot of southerners immigrate to Europe or Brazil ( still have slaves) o “carpetbaggers” = white northerners; came into the south to exploit the south  called the “carpetbaggers” because when they went to the south they packed up all their belongings in carpet and rolled the carpet. o Most hated group were the “scalawags”; the “scalawags” supported the repulicans o Republicans were seena s being liberal o “scalawags” were traitors o African Americans had freedom and some became successful and elected into office (state senators, state treasurers)  Blacks still didn’t have skills to be strong. Still dealt with racism  Black began to raise taxes (no one liked; cause criticism)  Whites wanted blacks out of office)  Radical Republicans achieve o System of public schools across the south o Welfare programs for people that were disabled (blind/deaf) o Lead south to become more industrialized with railroads be able to trade  Sharecropping = large plantations are broken up into parcels o African Americans would wk on these parcels o Freedman got 50% of crops, owner of the land got 50%  Tenant farming = better of than sharecropping; they got more to take home  Cop – lien system = owner of land would give freedman money to buy supplies and when crops are grown they pay the owners back; this system keep blacks constantly in poverty. Cant travel wherever you want because you own the white men money.  Ku Klux Klan first starts in 1866 in Tennessee  KKK hates the fact that republicans are seen as the enemy  KKK wanted to use intimidation to make blacks, carpetbaggers, scalawags to NOT vote for the republicans  KKK very successful. Used voter Fraud  KKK wanted to force blacks to vote democratic  KKK created redeemer governments across the south. Redeemers were white southerners conservative, democratic Lecture 1/14/10  Reconstruction in the south was relatively helpful for the African Amercians  Whites created the KK and other groups  Birth of the Nations (movie) o Very racist o Not filmed until 50 years after the civil war, demonstrated the stereotypes that were prevalent through out the south in the post-war years of African Americans o Blacks are portrayed as the villains o Blacks were loyal to the whites or fighting for their own rights o Blacks were soldiers o This movie makes fun of radical reconstruction o The clan is considered/viewed as loyal o KKK always depicted in red  Election of 1876 o Grant runs again th o Grant accomplished the 15 amendment and the republicans did not want him running again o Rutherford B Hayes vs. Samuel Tilden  Joint electoral commission created o 15 members of House, supreme court, and senate o FL, LA, SC were the 3 left over states go to Hayes o Hayes get 185 electoral votes o Tilden got 184 electoral votes.  Compromise of 1877 o Republican becomes president (Hayes) o Hayes must end military Rule in the south o Promise to build railroads through south but didn’t happen o Democrats wanted to end reconstruction o Civil rights for blacks in the south crumbled (black rights take such as no right to vote anymore)  The New south o Henry Grady developed this idea o Grady is the editor of the constitution o Needs to be an end to sharecropping o Grady believes south need to be more industrialized o 1920’s the southern economy remained agricultural  Disfranchisement o The whites wanted to disfranchise anyone who is a democrat.  Poll tax was due when people had no spare cash (disfranchise blacks)  Literacy test  Grandfather clause o If you’re grandfather did vote then you my not vote  Residency requirement o Had to be a citizen for a certain number of years or had to live in same places for a certain number of years  “White primary” o only whites could vote  Jim Crow Laws o Regulated all aspects of Black lives  Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) o 8-1 decision against Plessy separate is equal. Lecture 1/19/10 Lynchings  Every 2 days a black man was lynched  The last mass of multiple people in the united states that were lynched happened in the 1940’s and took place in Georgia.  Lynchings gave the victims no trial or defense before they were lynched.  Most the time lynching is a hanging but doesn’t have to be Booker T. Washington  Born to a slave mother and never really sure who his father was.  Interesting philosophy that African Americans in order to be seen as equals to whites then they have to prove they are equal by getting jobs. Very controversial  Problem is that whites didn’t want to hire blacks and most blacks didn’t have the education that was needed.  Tuskegee Institute was where African Americans get educated to have good skills for blue collar work. o Washington is criticized  Whites loved Booker T. Washington and donated money to Tuskegee Institution  Uses his money from his white donaters and donates it to the NAACP. W.E.B Du Bois  Born in massachuettes and was mixed race  Earned his undergraduate degree and was the first black to get his ph.d from Harvard.  Does not believe that every African American needs to be educated through this institution  Talented 10 – was the top ten most educated African Americans to go on and receive a liberal arts education and build the race o Criticism is its leadest, how do you deternine the top 10 percent, why only the top 10 percent?  Most known for working for the NAACP (was mostly white organization) and was the editor for the newsletter “the crisis” The west  Native Americans thought that the West was a place to move and start over with freedom after the Civil War  Conflict between the settlers moving west and the native African Americans out west  200,00 Exodusters (native Americans that move west)  Mining o A career path that native Americans thought they could make money fast o 1856 Comstock Load – settlers in Nevada found over 3 million dollars worth of cold o Pike’s Peak Boom (1858)  Cattle o 40,000 cowboys after the civil war working the great plains. o 30 percent of cowboys are either Indian, black, or Mexican o Average age of cowboy during this period is 24 years old o Era of cowboys between 1866-1868 o Dries up as a career path because of numerous drought and the invention of barbwire o Fence Cutter’s War  Takes place for about a year in Texas  Cowboys are cutting fences to get to peoples lands and the cowboys get shot  Farming o Farming is very profitable and the government is encouraging the number amount of people to go west and farm o 1970-1990 the farm that is available for farming expands. Governments were basically giving away free land or selling it for very cheap o Homestead Act  Occurs when the civil war starts and continues through another decade  If you move out west the government with give you 160 acres of land and if you make improvements on that land then you get it for free o Timber Act  Promises people they can get 160 acres for free as long as you plant trees on 40 acres. o Desert Land Act  640 acres of land for free if you irrigate the land  Indian Wars o Sand Creek Massacre  This shows how brutal the white Americans could be towards the native Americans  John chibington has a massacre of the people living in the camp which was all women, children, and the elderly o 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn  also known as custers last stand  lasted for about 15 months  Custer and 210 of his men decide to surround an Indian camp. 2500 native Americans come and kill all of custers 210 men o Nez Perce War  Chief Joseph  Tired of fighting  Travels his troups 1500 miles towards Canada and then after 30 miles outside of Canada the government catches them o Battle of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890)  Last big battle of Indian Wars  200-300 sue are killed  people are returning their weapons o Dawes Act  Passed in 1887  Goal was to get native Americans to assimulate and become more American (become White)  Government says we will enter into an agreement with the native Americans to give up their way of life and use white methods of farming to make a living and convert to Christianity then the government will give the native Americans citizenship. The government will also give them land.  40 acres for general living methods  if they raise cattle with the white method then they get 80 acres  if they work as farmers with white methods then they would get 160 acres of land.  The government was giving the native Americans bad land  The native Americans wanted to receive the land and then sell it to move somewhere else but the Dawes act made it mandatory for the Native Americans to keep the land for 25 years  1924 all native Americans were granted citizenship Lecture 1/21/10  Railroads o Transcontinental – 1869 o Due to the pacific Railroad act (1862) – union pacific – central pacific o Met at promontores point (may 10, 1869)  Land grants given to the Atlantic and Pacific Radical Republicans in Arizona = 100 square miles of land for every mile of track built. Plus 200 acres for rough terrain (costed US government over $100 million)  Credit Mobilier Scandal o False Lecture 1/26/10  Lassie Faire government - hand off government; the government is going to let you do what you want to do and not watch every move  Andrew Graham Bell developed the telephone (1876). o Bell originally wanted to create something to help the deaf people hear but actually created the telephone  Theodore Vail o Worked off of Bell’s invention o Created AT&T – American telephone and telegraph company o AT&T - is the largest monopoly during that time. o This gave woman a chance to work o Thousands of women were being hired for teleoperator o Starts the beginning of a slow revolution  George Westinghouse o Created airbreaks for railroads. o The airbreaks allows the train to stop at a faster rate and get going faster would would allow companies to add more trains on the railroads o Before airbreaks there was break men and because of this invention all the men lost their jobs  Elisha Otis o invented the elevator o important in the cities because taller buildings were able to be built  Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour o Developed canned meat; meat pac
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