History of Science

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HIS 3464
Peter Simons

HOTS Final Exam Study Guide 1) Enlightenment- cultural movement of intellectuals in the 17 thand 18 th centuries, first in Europe. Reformed using reason based in the scientific method, not faith. 2) Rene Descartes- “Cartesian”. Believed science and math could explain nature and described the universe in terms of matter and motion. Believed in God and doubted his own existence. 3) Mechanical Philosophy - belief that living things are like machines. Opposed Aristotle. 4) Comte de Buffon- a French naturalist that later i nfluenced Lamarck and Cuvier. Held position of intendant at the Jardin du Roi. 5) Isaac Newton- Englishman who proved the three laws of motion. This theory combined with Kepler’s laws, removed any doubts about heliocentrism and advanced the scientific revolu tion. 6) Laws of Motion- ~First: If an object experiences no net force, then its velocity is constant. ~Second: Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body. ~Third: When a first body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force on the first body. 7) Theory of Color and Light - Newton discovered the color spectrum through prisms and rainbows from refraction and thus disproved Hooke’s theory. 8) Aristotle- ancient Greek philosopher and student of Plato. He also believed in four elements of the cosmos: earth, water, fire and air. Bodies moved by their own nature and the Universe is imperfect and finite. 1 9) Love Canal- bio hazardous waste is dumped into the Love Canal and causes ethical environmental and health problems for local residents and wildlife. 10) Plato- ancient Greek philosopher constantly changing world with imitations all trying to achieve the real perfect form. 11) Hippocrates/Hippocratics - ancient Greek physician known as the father of western medicine. He was a large figure in the world of clinical medicine. 12) Carl Linnaeus- Swedish man who came up with binomial nomenclature. 13) Charles Darwin- English naturalist that came up with the theory of natural selection through evolution. Wrote Origin of Species. 14) Natural Selection - Darwin’s theory of why a population “changes” according to it’s habitat, survival of the fittest. Best seen on Galapagos Islands. 15) Thomas Malthus- British scholar who is widely known f or his theories about population increases and decreases. He observed that eventually famine and disease would check populations. 16) Eugenics- biosocial movement that advocates improving the genetic composition of a population by higher production of more desirable people and traits. 17) Military Industrial Complex - refers to the relationships between legislatures, the national armed forces and the defense industrial base that supports them. Originally proposed by Guerin. 18) Johannes Kepler- German man best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion. Believed in “celestial physics”. Planetary motion: ~First: the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci. ~Second: A 2 line joining a planet and sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. ~Third: the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of the orbit. 19) Social Darwinism- applies biological concepts of Darwinism and evolution to social life and politics , saying that conflict between groups in society leads to social progression as superior groups out compete inferior ones. This idea emerged in England in the 1870’s. 20) Preformation (genetics)- idea that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves. Every person to be born in the lineage of a family already exists inside the egg in the uterus of their mother. 21) Mechanical Philosophy - see number 3 above. 22) Catastrophism- theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. Proposed by Cuvier. 23) Copernican’ Cosmology - idea that the Earth was in fact not at the center of our universe. 24) Skepticism- generally questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts or opinions. 25) Silent Spring- book written by Rachel Carson that launched the American environmental movement. The book documented the negative effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly birds. 26) “I think, therefore I am”- idea proposed by Rene Descartes that says that someone wondering whether or not they exist is, in itself, proof that something exists to do the thinking. 3 27) Vortex- theory proposed by Rene Descartes that stated that space was entirely filled with matter in various states, whirling aroun d the sun. 28) Society of Jesus- a Christian male group under the Roman Catholic Church. They are willing to go anywhere under harsh conditions to teach the word of God. 29) Universal Gravitation - proposed by Newton and states that every point mass in the universe attracts another point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses. 30) Binomial Nomenclature - naming system proposed by Carl Linnaeus that names every species scientifically by its genus, then species within th at genus. 31) Jardin du roi (King’s Garden)/ Jardin des plantes (Botanical Garden) - main botanical garden in France. Comte de Buffon was the garden’s intendant. 32) Energy- ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. 33) Industrial Revolution- period from 1750-1850 where changes in agriculture, mining and transportation had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the time. It began in Great Britain and eventually spread to the rest of the world. Income and population sustained noticeable growth. 34) Principles of Geology - book written by Charles L yell. Lyell’s interpretation of geologic change was that Earth formed through a steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long spans of time and the present is the key to the future. 4 35) Neptunism- discredited theory proposed by Abraham Werner that said that rocks formed from the crystallization of minerals in the early Earth’s oceans. 36) Uniformitarianism - the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now, have always operated in the universe and apply everywhere in the universe. Proposed by James Hutton in contrast to catastrophism. 37) Imperialist Tradition (Bacon)- the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship between the states and often in the form of an empire. It’s the exploitation of native people in order to enrich a small handful. 38) Arcadian Tradition - the ideal of a simple rural life in close harmony with nature. 39) Naturalphilosophie - the philosophy of nature, precursor of physics. 40) Ecology- the scientific study of the relationship organisms have with each other and with their natural environment. 41) Indiana Dunes- unit of the national park syste m that is a designated U.S. national lakeshore in northwest Indiana. 42) Gaia- in ancient mythology was the goddess or personification of Earth and she was the mother of all. 43) Systems Ecology- field of ecology that takes a holistic approach to the study of eco systems. Supports the idea that an ecosystem is a complex system exhibiting emergent properties. 44) Human Ecology- division of ecology that focuses on the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. 5 45) Recapitulation- the idea that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors. Etienne Serres came up with this in the 1820’s. 46) Galen- Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher. He built his understanding of off the theory of humorism (excess or deficiency of any of the four body fluids in a person will directly affect their temperament and health) and was later expanded upon by Hippocra tes. 47) Hotel-Dieu- regarded as the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, France. It was the first hospital in Paris until the Renaissance. 48) Relativity- encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein and includes the concepts: ~Measurements of various q uantities are relative to the velocities of observers. ~Space and time should be considered together and in relation to each other. ~The speed of light is nonetheless invariant, the same for all observers. 49) Scholastics- method of critical thought that d ominated medieval universities in Europe from 1100 -1500 in which they valued knowledge over religion. 50) Translation- ask teacher about this. 51) Pliny- Roman who created an encyclopedia which contained much of the knowledge of his time. 52) Augustine- Latin philosopher and theologian who is worshipped by Catholics as a saint. 53) Manhattan Project - research and development program by the U.S. and U.K. that produced the first atomic bomb during WWII. 6 54) Strategic Defense Initiative - proposed by Ronald Reagan to use underground and space based systems to protect the U.S. from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. 55) Scientific Method- a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge or correcting previous knowledge. 56) Scholasticism- see number 49 above. 57) Great Plains- a broad expanse of flat land lying west of the Mississippi River and East of the Rocky Mountains. Would later turn into the Dust Bowl. 58) The Plow That Broke the Plains - short documentary showing what happened to the Great Plains when uncontrolled agricultural farming led to the Dust Bowl. 59) Big Bang Theory- cosmological theory that describes the early development of the universe by saying that at one time the universe was extremely hot and dense and expanded rapidly. The rapid expansion caused the universe to cool and resulted in its present continuously expanding state. 60) Lamarckism- idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring. 61) Analytical Psychology- originated from the ideas of Carl Jung. Its aim is wholeness through the integration of unconscious forces and motivations underlying human behavior and is very similar to Freudian ideas. 62) Behaviorism- idea that psychology should concern itself with observable behaviors, not unobservable events that take place in the mind. Watson and Skinner were behaviorists. 7 63) Red Shift- occurs when light seen coming from an object that is moving away is proportionally increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum. 64) Spectroscopy- study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. 65) Big Bang Theory/Solid State - rivals the big bang theory and states that new matter is continuously created as the universe expands. 66) Evolutionism (Psychology)- purpose is to seek to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations. Lecture Questions 6b Who did Science? 1) Who was actually thinking about and doing the work of natural philosophy and science? Aristotle and others. 2) Beyond personalities, what was the significance of who they were for contemporaries and us today? They were people who were already very prominent in the scientific community. 7b Scientific Revolution 1) How did the theory and practice of science change in early modern Europe? 2) Who were its practitioners? 3) What motivated this change? 8 4) To what does the “rebirth” in renaissance refer? The rebirth refers to the rebirth of interest on the secular world and art. Also, many people stopped dying from the black plague at this time so there was a rise in the population as well. 5) Why was this return to the ancients different from the scholastics or the Romans? 6) What was the relationship between exploration/colonialism and science? Knowledge in science increased the exploring country’s status as they processed information that was acquired as part of an effort to exploit foreign peoples. 8b Newton 1) Why were Newton’s theories such a stark shift in natural philosophy/science? To many other natural philosophers of the time, Newton’s book released with his theories was more of a
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