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EUH 3205 Final: Final Exam Study Guide


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George Williamson
Study Guide

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19th Century Europe Final Exam
EUH3205: Study Guide for Final Exam
The final examination will consist of three sections, which are explained in more detail below.
*First section (worth 30%): 30 multiple-choice questions
*Second section (worth 30%): 6 short answer questions
*Long essay (worth 40%)
Section 1 will consist of thirty multiple-choice questions. These will be based on the material we
have covered from the French Revolution through World War I.
Section 2 will consist of 6 short-answer questions. In most cases, they will ask you to relate one
or more quotes (or, in some cases, images) to a broader historical phenomenon or context. In
most cases, these quotes and images will be familiar to you from the readings and lectures. Here
is an example of this kind of question:
1. Explain the significance of this quote in relationship to the specific context in which it was
written and the French Revolution as a whole. To what extent does the rhetoric in this passage
foreshadow the more radical rhetoric of 1793-1794?
“Who then shall dare to say that the Third Estate has not within itself all that is necessary for the
formation of a complete nation? It is the strong and robust man who has one arm still shackled. If
the privileged order should be abolished, the nation would be nothing less, but something more.
Therefore, what is the Third Estate? Everything, but an everything shackled and oppressed. What
would it be without the privileged order? Everything, but an everything free and flourishing.
Nothing can succeed without it, everything would be infinitely better without the others.Abb́
Sieỳs, What is the Third Estate? (1789)
In most cases, it will take 1-2 paragraphs to answer these questions. The following topics are
likely to serve as the basis for these short answer questions: 1: the French Revolution and
Napoleon; 2. the Industrial Revolution; 3. conservatism, nationalism, liberalism, Romanticism;
4; the 1848 revolution; 5; socialism; 6. unification (of Italy, of Germany); 7. religion and science
in the Victorian era; 8. the women’s suffrage debate; 9. the social question and the working class
movement; 10. the new imperialism; 11. fin-de-sìcle culture; 12. the origins of World War I.
You will be given a choice of which questions to answer, but the selection will be limited. In
studying for these questions, do not attempt to memorize individual dates or texts. Instead, focus
on broader complexes of events and ideas and how these relate to each other.
Section 3 will consist of a long essay. In this essay, you will be required to synthesize
information from a number of different sources and topics. This part of the exam is designed to
assess how well you understand the broad themes of the second half of the course and how they
fit together. The essay will be based on the following question, which focuses on the late 19th
One of the major developments in Europe during the late nineteenth century (ca. 1871-1914) was
a crisis of liberalism (with liberalism understood here as both a political and economic ideology
and as a broader philosophy or worldview). In a wide-ranging essay, describe the factors (social,
political, cultural) that led to the late nineteenth-century crisis of liberalism. What were the
consequences of this crisis?
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19th Century Europe Final Exam
Victoria & Albert: Queen of England and her husband he wasn’t king because he could not
have been higher in title/status than her. Symbols of middle class values in the Victorian Era.
Hegemony of middle class values consent to their ideas. Creed: individual effort and
enterprise, earnestness (here to do your duty on earth), respectability (clean, sober, thrifty).
The Great/Crystal Palace Exhibition: International exhibition in Hyde Park, London in 1851.
First in a series of World’s Fair exhibitions of culture and industry to become popular. Organized
by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria. Attended by numerous notable
figures. Made of glass and iron. Themes of patriotism and celebration of modern industrial
technology and design. Prime motive Great Britain to make clear its role as a world industrial
leader and sought to prove its superiority.
Contagious Diseases Acts (1864, 1866, 1869): prostitutes necessary aspect of society. Fear of
leading to disease. Passed by the Parliament of the U.K. Allowed police officers to arrest
prostitutes in certain ports and army towns, and the women were then subjected to compulsory
checks for venereal disease. If the woman was declared infect, she was confined in what was
known as a “Lock Hospital” until “cured.” Justified as most effective method to shield men from
venereal disease. No provision made for examination of prostitutes’ clientele – double standard.
Samuel Smiles: Self Help (1859) argued for individual effort and enterprise. Knowledge one of
highest enjoyments. Every human great mission to perform, noble faculties to cultivate, vast
density to accomplish. “Should have means of education and of exerting freely all the powers of
his godlike nature.” “The bible of mid-Victorian liberalism.”
William Gladstone (1809-1898): Scott from merchant classes. Christian religiosity reform:
intervene in world. “Rescue work” with prostitutes. Became member of British Parliament in
1833. 1860s leader of “Liberal Party.” Working class respectability and agitation for suffrage.
Supporter of the Second Reform Bill. Became Prime Minister 1874 end of patronage, govt
careers open to talent. Ballot Act (1872) introduced requirement that parliamentary and local
govt elections in the U.K. be held by secret ballot. Elementary Education Act (1870) set
framework for schooling of all children between ages 5-12.
Reform Bill of 1867: enfranchised urban male working class in England and Wales. Doubled
number of adult males that could vote. Little distribution of seats intended to help Conservative
Party. Supported by Gladstone.
Giuseppe Mazzini: (“Beating Heart of Italy”) Revolutionary republican nationalist. Active in
Carbonari (secret revolutionary societies). Founds Young Italy (1831) movement to create a
united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states
and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire. Belief popular uprising would create a
unified Italy. Helped define modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican
state. Activist for unification of Italy efforts helped bring about the independent and unified
Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, which existed
until the 19th century.
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19th Century Europe Final Exam
Crimean War: conflict between Russian Empire and alliance of the French, British, and Ottoman
Empires and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Part of a long-running contest between major European
powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Logistical and tactical
errors during the land campaign on both sides. Sometimes considered to be one of the first
“modern” wars as it introduced technical changes, which affected the future course of warfare.
The Concert of Europe after 1849: Congress System reasserted: against aggressive war. No
state acquire territories without consent of others. Stabilize international order. Problems:
Louis Napoleon Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870). Interventions. “Realism” in foreign policy
(“guns & butter”).
Origins: Ottoman Empire as “Sick Man of Europe” – power vacuum. Pilgrimage sites:
Catholics, Orthodox, Armenians, Copts. 1847- Catholic silver star removed in Bethlehem.
1852: French naval threat to Ottoman Empire. 1853: Russian occupation of Moldavia &
Wallachia. Oct. 1853: Ottoman Empire Declares war on Russia. Mar. 1854: England and
France declare war on Russia.
Course of the War: siege of Sebastopol. High rates of disease. Fall of Sevastopol 1855. Treaty
of Paris (1856). Russia out of Moldavia & Wallachia Romania. Russia gives up claims to
protect Orthodox in Ottoman Empire.
Consequences: Concert of Europe dead. Russian-Austrian enmity. French aggression
successful. After Austria threatened to join the allies, Russia accepted the preliminary peace
terms, which were formalized at the Congress of Paris.
Ottoman Empire: state found by Turkish tribes became empire with conquest of
Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453. Reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe,
and Africa. Called “sick man of Europe” in mid-19th century experienced a time of economic
difficulty/impoverishment. Affected by rise of nationalism: forced to deal within and beyond its
borders. Number of revolutionary political parties rose uprisings had far-reaching
consequences. Directly affected by Russian imperialism. Tried to catch up to the western world
by passing political and administrative reformations.
Piedmont-Sardinia: Italy after 1849: Kingdom became founding state of the new Kingdom of
Italy, annexing all other Italian states. King Victor Emmanuel II. Lombardy & Venetia. Tuscany,
Parma, Modena. Papal States (Pius IX). Kingdom of Two Sicily’s (Naples King Ferdinand II).
North-south disparity. Plotting war:
Austrian “draft” in Lombardy & Venetia (1858). Piedmont offers refuge to draft dodgers
(1858). Napoleon’s cold feet. Austrian ultimatum demanding Piedmont demobilize (April,
1859) Austria declares war on Piedmont-Sardinia. France joins war against Austria.
War: Battles of Magenta & Solferino (1859). Nationalist revolutions in Tuscany, Parma,
Modena, Romagna. Napoleon’s preemptive peace with Austria (July 1859). Jan 1860:
Tuscany, Parma, Modena, & Romagna Piedmont-Sardinia. Nice & Savoy France.
Camillo di Cavour: Prime Minister 1852-1861: moderate liberal, political realist,
industrialization and free trade, Crimean intervention. Liberal ministry Kingdom became
engine driving Italian Unification.
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882): Italian general and politician. Considered one of Italy’s
“fathers of the fatherland.” Central figure in Italian Risorgimento personally commanded and
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