INR 3003 Final: Test 3 Guide P 2

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International Affairs
INR 3003
Whitney Bendeck

1. "Why do they hate us" 1. A reaction piece (aftermath) 2. The idea of fundamentalism --> interpretations on how the world should work (who should rule it who should govern) 1. Culture and religion (Osama bin Laden --> his answer was religion) 2. "All Muslims should be fighting against infidels" 3. "They" --> Arab Muslims 2. Brief History of Islam 1. Shares Judeo-Christina Roots (Abrahamic religion --> Judaism, Christianity, Islam) 1. The Sons 1. Jews and Christians (Isaac) 2. Islam (Ismael) 2. Jesus 1. Christianity (Christ is Son of God) 2. Judaism (Jesus is not divine) 3. Islam (Jesus is a prophet in a line of prophets) 2. Muhammad(570-632) 1. The new prophet born in Mecca 1. Mecca (land and sea trade roots) 2. Economic hub 3. Corruption of different ideas (this is "where it started") 4. Born with wealth --> corrupted 2. Born into the Quraysh tribe 3. He left Mecca (40 years old) 4. Approached by the angel Gabriel (command to recite --> the words of the Quran) 5. Preached "Go back to basics" --> message not well received in Mecca 1. Muhammad was forced out of Mecca --> went to Medina (622 AD) 1. Continued to preach reform (unite leaders together) 2. He eventually became the leader (politically and militarily) 3. Ummah 1. Community of believers 2. Changing identity (people had very defined identity (tribal)) 1. Replacing tribal identities with common identity (believers) 2. Origin of Islam and POLITICAL Islam 4. Five Pillars 1. Prayer 1. 5 times a day towards Mecca 2. Shahada 1. Statement of conversion "there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet" 3. Alms 1. Charity 4. Fasting (Ramadan) 1. Lunar Month 5. Hajj 1. Pilgrimage to Mecca 5. Christianity vs Islam(Clash of Civilizations) 1. Christians 1. The Divine Jesus (son of God) 2. Jesus was not a political figure (he wasn’t a religious figure either --> he didn’t fight for political order) 3. Separation of Church and State (western world) 2. Muslims 1. Muhammad the prophet and his relationship as the spokesman from Allah 2. Played a political leader (he was able to establish himself of military rule and conqueror) 3. No allowance for separation between religion and politics (Islamic Law - Sharia) 3. Quran (Hadith and Sunna) Comes down to INTERPRETATION 1. Hadith 1. Sayings of the prophet 2. Sunna 1. Traditions (life of the prophet) 4. Islam's relationship to the State & Role of Conquest 1. Sharia 1. Islamic law based on the Quran (the Hadith and Sunna) 2. Reinforces the political and religious rule (bringing them all together) 6. Caliphates 1. Caliph --> naming a successor (Abu-Bakr (father-in-law) 1. Who could legitimately be a Caliph?? 2. The legitimist "the successor needed to come from Muhammad's blood line" 1. Later known as the Shiites 2. Orthodox (or "Rightly Guided") -632-61 1. Four Uniting Bonds 1. Religion 2. Law (sharia) 3. Trade and integrated economy 4. Common language (Arabic) 2. Legitimists (Shiites) vs. Umayyad's (Sunnis) 1. Umayyad didn’t know that a successor needed to be from blood line 2. THIS IS A HUGE RIFT IN ISLAM 3. Umayyad (661-750) 1. Ruled by Muawiyah (after Ali assassination) he does represent the Sunnis 2. Political hub was Damascus (growth and expansion) 3. Golden Age of Islam under the Umayyad's 4. Spread of Arab language and culture 5. Rule became hereditary (establishes a dynastic rule) 4. Abbasid (750-1258) 1. Capital moved to Bagdad (cosmopolitan city and used to be biggest city) 2. Continuation of the Golden Age of Islam 1. Developing in math's and sciences and philosophy and arts 2. Political --. Not a centralized rule (weakness) 3. 900s an they were experiencing political decline 3. Seljuk's (turks) 1. Central Asia to Bagdad (1055) --> did not topple the caliph 2. Ran into the byzantine empire 4. Crusades 1. Move all the way down to take Jerusalem (2 centuries worth of fighting) 5. Mongols (…Mamluks) 1. They made it to Bagdad (destroying it) --> end of Abbasid caliphate 5. Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) **Quraysh, Abu-Bakr (Muhammad's Caliph), Umar (general, became second Caliph), Uthman (assassinated), Ali (assassinated, was a blood relative of Muhammad), Muawiyah, Ataturk (abolished the last caliph) Fundamentalism (conservative interpretation) --> is not bad --> but the radical component can come out of it We couldn’t put an enemy in a "state" --> A NON STATE ENEMY **Jihad --> struggle** --> NOT A FIVE PILLAR Muhammad died and left no successor 1. 20th Century Humiliation: 1. Mustafa Kemal – Atatürk (father of Turkey): vision for Turkey in opposition to Islamic view. Determined to secularize Turkey. 1924: abolished Caliphate. 2. Extremists call for the restoration of the Caliphate. 3. Secularized government (removed religion). 4. Took religion out of curriculum, changed the style of dress (more Westernized). 5. Created a new script – not Arabic, Turkish. Attacked uniting bonds of Islam (except maybe trade). After WWII, another grievance. 6. 1948 formation of Israel (at expense of Arab lands). U.S. major champion. 1. Those within Arabic world who opposed saw Israel at their expense. 7. The U.S. cannot be targeted as a colonial power, but can be for post WWII American imperialism. 8. Currently: Turkey cannot be placed with the East or West. Islam, but then Ataturk... 2. Rise of Reform and Radical Islamic Extremism 1. Two Types of Reform 1. Internal-Fundamentalism 1. Seek to br
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