APK 3110C Study Guide - Midterm Guide: 5,6,7,8, Anaerobic Respiration, Pyruvic Acid

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APK 3310C
STUDY GUIDE
Bioenergetics - Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8 (pp 185-189) and lab and lecture notes
1. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
a. Aerboic Respiration is with oxygen
i. Also known as slow glycolysis because it takes longer to make but it
provides much more energy
b. Anaerobic respiration is without oxygen
i. Also known as fast glycolysis because it supplies energy fast and is used
when we need energy right away
2. What is ATP? How does it function? How is it formed?
a. ATP is the main energy currency in the body
b. ATP = An adenosine molecule attached to three phosphates (triphosphate)
c. When a phosphate is cleaved, energy is released during the cleavage
3. Describe glycolysis.
a. Glycolysis is the catabolic pathway that glucose enters to yield energy.
b. Glycolysis ONLY occurs in the cells cytosol
c. During glycolysis, you start with glucose and end with pyruvate
d. The net ATP is 2
e. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in the body; the muscles combine many
glucose molecules together as storage
f. In the first step, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, this takes
one ATP to make.
i. This is done so the glucose does not leave the cell. Free glucose must take
this step, so the glucose does not leave the cell.
ii. Since glycogen is already in the muscle, the glucose simply has to break
its storage and thus it will skip that step free glucose takes.
iii. Therefore, glycogen will always have one more ATP than free glucose
(Glycogen = 3 and free glucose = 2)
g. The potential for glucose metabolism to form ATP is in the form of the high
energy molecules NADH2 and FADH2. (in the electron transport chain)
i. Glycolysis takes the six-carbon glucose and cleaves it into two three
carbon pyruvates
ii. If we need energy fast, as in during intense exercise, pyruvate will form
lactate.
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iii. To form pyruvate, the body had to use a NAD to form NADH (has a lot of
potential to form ATP), which means that NAD is required in order to
form pyruvate and form the 2 ATP that glycolysis forms. When you need
energy fast, this glycolysis has to keep running, but the cell will run out of
NAD fast. When pyruvate forms lactate, NADH (only makes all its ATP
in the electron transport chain) will turn back into NAD. This will allow
glycolysis to keep happening, and form the 2 ATP.
4. How is lactate formed during glycolysis? What are the conditions under which it is
formed?
a. Anaerobically, glucose will become lactate (without oxygen)
b. Aerobically, glucose will become acetyl CoA (with oxygen)
5. Describe the Krebs cycle
o If energy isn’t require right away, the pyruvates will enter another route.
Instead of forming lactate, they will enter the cell’s mitochondria. Once it
enters the mitochondria, it has committed to aerobic respiration. Once
inside, it will form acetyl-coA, along with a NADH; this is irreversible. As
acetyl-coA, it will go through many reactions, which release CO2 (this is
what we exhale) and they will also form NADH and FADH2, along with a
GTP.
o Each cycle of the Krebs cycle, form 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and one GTP.
o The formation of pyruvate to acetyl-coA forms 1 NADH.
o 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP, are formed in total but there are two
pyruvates, so everything is doubled which gives 8 NADH, 2 FADH, and 2
GTP
6.) Describe the ETC.
a. There are four complexes that make up the chain, and each complex takes away
electrons from the NADH and FADH. The very last complex takes all the
electrons and uses them to form an ATP molecule. Oxygen is the final electron
acceptor, and this is why we need to breathe oxygen to live.
b. At each complex, electrons are pumped out of the NADH. At the last complex,
there is enough electrons to form 3 ATP. So, each NADH forms 3 ATP. FADH2
enters the second complex, so it skips the first one. This means that fewer
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electrons are pumped out of FADH2, so the last complex only forms 2 ATP. So,
each FADH2 forms 2 ATP.
c. In total, there’s 38 ATP made if free glucose is used and 39 ATP if glycogen was
used.
7.) Be able to give a general description of beta oxidation.
a. Beta Oxidation is using fats to make ATP instead of glucose.
b. Glucose is the preferred energy source in the body, as the metabolism of glucose
is faster and more efficient than using fats. But, fats have to potential to generate
much more ATP than the 38 (or 39) that glucose makes.
c. Fats circulate and are stored in the body as triglycerides
d. The fatty acids are transported into the mitochondria (so it’s aerobic). This
transport takes 2 ATP to do.
e. A fatty acid is basically a long chain of carbons and hydrogen’s (usually 16
carbons). The fatty acid is cleaved 2 carbons at a time, and this cleavage forms 1
NADH and 1 FADH2. Each 2 carbons cleaved make an acetyl-coA and form 3
NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP, each 2 carbons cleave make 12 ATP + the 5 we
get at the beginning from the 1 NADH and 1 FADH2.
8.) What is the respiratory quotient and how is it determined. What is the relationship
between respiratory quotient, work and fuel use?
a. The respiratory quotient is a number that’s derived from the amount of carbon
dioxide in our venous blood divided by the amount of oxygen in our venous
blood. This will give you a ratio between 0.7-1.0. The higher this ratio is, the
more carbohydrates our body is burning. The closer it is to 0.7 means that our
body is relying on fat for fuel
i. During exercise, a low RQ means that we are burning fat for fuel, so the
intensity must be easy/medium. With increasing exercise intensity, the RQ
will approach 1.0, signifying that our body is using carbohydrates for
energy.
9.) What is the primary fuel for rest; light to moderate exercise and heavy exercise?
a. During light-moderate exercise, the body prefers to use fats for fuel, because they
generate much more ATP
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