APK 3110C Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mechanoreceptor, Glycolysis, Motor Cortex

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APK 3110C STUDY GUIDE
1.) Definitions of different lung volumes
a. Inspiration Diaphragm action
i. Diaphragm descends
b. Inspiration rib action
i. Increased thoracic cavity volume
ii. Ribs rise
c. Expiration diaphragm action
i. Diaphragm moves up
d. Expiration rib action
i. Decreased thoracic cavity volume
ii. Ribs lower
e. What does expiration do to the lung volume/pressure?
i. Decreases volume
ii. Increases pressure
f. What does inspiration do to the lung volume/pressure?
i. Increases volume
ii. Decreases pressure
2.) Minute ventilation- definition; calculations
a. Minute ventilation (VdotE) volume of air breathed each minute
b. VdotE = (breathing rate) x (tidal volume)
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3.) How gas partial pressures change during exercise in the alveoli, circulation and in
muscle (i.e. direction of diffusion of each gas) and how its regulated
a. Elite endurance athletes- large ventilation load and accompanying pulmonary
blood flow can cause alveolar mechanical stress and impair the blood-gas barriers
permeability
b. Intense endurance activity = 25 times more O2 and CO2 are transferred across the
membrane between alveolar and capillary
i. Matched by increase in cardiac output
4.) Surfactant
a. “wetting agent” lipoproteins mixture
i. proteins, phospholipids, and calcium ions produced alveolar epithelial
cells
b. interrupts the surrounding water layer, reducing the alveolar membranes surface
tension, thereby increasing overall lung compliance
c. reduces the energy required for alveolar inflation and deflation
d. without surfactant, small alveoli would collapse from high collapsing pressures
5.) Inspiration and expiration processes
a. Inspiration
i. Lungs expands
1. Increases volume
2. Decreases pressure
ii. Pressure in lungs Is less than pressure of air outside which leads to the
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outside air entering lungs to equalize pressure
6.) Fick’s Law, Boyle’s law
a. Ficks’s Law
i. Governs gas diffusion across a fluid membrane
ii. A gas diffuses through a sheet of tissue at a rate
1. Directly proportional to the tissue area
2. Inversely proportional to tissue thickness
3. Vgas = (D) x (A) x (ΔP/T)
b. Boyle’s Law
i. Boyles Gas Law
1. Boyle’s gas law = (pressure) x (volume)
a. Volume = constant
2. With a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely
proportional
a. If you change the volume the pressure will change
7.) Changes in alveolar membrane characteristics and their impact on diffusion
a. Diffusion gas exchange in lungs between alveoli and capillary blood
b. Diffusion functions:
i. Putting oxygen into the blood
ii. Taking carbon dioxide out of the blood
c. The pressure difference between alveolar and pulmonary blood gases creates the
driving force for gas diffusion across the pulmonary membrane
d. 2 Factors affect Rate of Diffusion
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