APK 3110C- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 65 pages long!)

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APK 3110C
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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APK 3110C
Week 1
Chapter 5 Introduction to Energy Transfer
Energy The Capacity for Work
Energy emergest only when change occurs
Energy relates to the performances of work
o As work increases so does energy transfer and thus change
Work refers to the product of a give force acting through a given distance
o Work = Force x Distance
Cells more commonly accomplish chemical and electrical work than mechanical work
Bioenergetics the flow and exchange of energy within a living system
First law of Thermodynamics describes a principle related to biologic work
o Basic tenant states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but transforms
form one form to another without being depleted
o This law describes an important conservation of energy principle
Conservation of energy principle applies to both living and nonliving systems
Potential and Kinetic Energy
Potential energy Examples:
o Bound energy within the internal structure of a battery
o Stick of dynamite
o Macronutrient before releasing its sotred energy in metabolism
o The release of potential energy transforms into kinetic energy of motion
Biosynthesis specific builing block atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
become activated and join other atoms and molecules to synthesize important biologic
compounds and tissues
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) contribute to the cells energy
requirements
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Energy Releasing and Energy Conserving Processes
Exergonic any physical or chemical process that releases (frees) energy to its
surroundings
o Repesets dohill poesses eause of a delie i fee eeg
Within a cell, where pressure and volume remain relatively stable, free energy
determines the potential energy within a molecules chemical bonds
Free Energy
o G= H TS
o G = Free energy
o H= Enthalpy
o S = Randomness due to energy unavailability
o T = Temperature
Endergonic = chemical reactions stored of absorb energy, these reactions represent
uphill poesses ad poeed ith a iease i fee eeg fo iologi ok
Exergonic processes sometimes link or couoople with endergonic reactions to transfer
some energy to the endergonic process
o In exergonic reactions, energy release occurs as the eatat flos dohill
Equation: ∆ = ∆ − ∆
Interconversions of Energy
The total energy in a closed system remains constant so a decrease in one form of
energy matches an equivalent increase in another form
All chemicals and physical processes proceed in a direction where total randomness or
disorder increases and the energy available for work decreases
Forms of Energy
Chemical (fossil fuel and oil burner)
Mechanical (hydroelectric generating plant)
Heat (Solar panel forms)
Light (Sun)
Electrical
Nuclear (Reactor)
Examples of Energy Conversions
Photosynthesis and respiration represent the most fundamental examples of energy
conversion in living cells
Photosynthesis
o In the sun, nuclear fusion releases part of the potential energy stored in the
nucleus of the hydrogen atom
o This energy in the form of gamma radiation, then converts to radiant
o Plants transfer the energy of sunlight to the potential energy bound within
carbohydrates, lipids and proteins through the endergonic process of
photosynthesis
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