HUN-1201 Study Guide - Final Guide: Trans Fat, Nitrogen Balance, Dehydration Reaction
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Study Guide for Final Exam (Test 4)
1. What is the main link between Nutrition and Disease in the US?
--Maintaining a well-balanced diet can prevent many diseases
2. What is the difference between organic vs. nonorganic molecules? The lack of what element
makes them inorganic? Know some examples of each.
--Organic: a substance or nutrient that contains the element carbon
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins)
--Inorganic: a substance or nutrient that does not contain carbon (minerals
3. What are the primary functions of proteins in the body?
--Proteins: contain nitrogen; not usually a primary energy source; support
tissue growth, repair, and maintenance
4. DRI’s apply to which population of people?
--Healthy people only
5. What is a chronic disease? How can it develop?
--Chronic diseases are those that come on slowly and can persist for years, often despite treatment
6. Define Nutrient Density.
--Nutrient dense foods are foods that give the highest amount of nutrients for the least amount of
7. Which government agency regulates food labeling in the US?
--The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
8. What type of fat do we want to avoid entirely, and what type of fat do we want to limit according
to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
--Fat is an important part of a healthful diet because it provides energy, essential fatty acids, and
fat-soluble vitamins. Trans fat intake should be as low as possible. Key recommendations include
consuming less than 10% of calories from saturated fats and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol.
Total fat intake should be 20 to 35% of total energy intake.
9. When an individual is consuming fewer calories than required, which characteristic of a healthful
diet would not be met?
a. Define Balance, Adequacy, Variety, and Moderation to help you answer this.
--A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients. It has four
characteristics: it is adequate, moderate, balanced, and varied. An adequate diet provides
enough of the energy, nutrients, and fiber to maintain a person’s diet. Moderation refers to
eating any foods in moderate amounts – not too much and not too little. A balanced diet is
one that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper proportion of
nutrients. Variety refers to eating many different foods from the different food groups on
a regular basis. Therefore, when an individual is consuming fewer calories than required,
it would not be adequate because they are not consuming enough calories.
10. Processed foods typically contain what mineral to help preserve it?
11. Define physically active according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
--Minimum of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week. Being
physically active 60 to 90 minutes per day on most days of the week is recommended to prevent
weight gain and to promote weight loss in those who are overweight.
12. Define Hunger. Define Appetite. What is the difference between the two?
--Hunger: the innate, physiological drive or need to eat
--Appetite: a psychological desire to consume speci!c foods
--Hunger is nonspeci!c – when you’re hungry, a variety of di%erent foods
could satisfy you. Appetite is a psychological desire to consume
13. What are the functions of mucus in the stomach?
--Protects the stomach from gastric juices
14. What does HCL activate in the stomach?
--Converts pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin that digests proteins
15. What compound secreted during digestion emulsifies fats? What organs make and store this?
--The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in the small intestine in response to the
presence of proteins and lipids. This hormone signals the gallbladder to contract. The gallbladder
stores bile (produced by the liver), which emulsifies lipids.
16. What compound neutralizes stomach acid? What organ secretes this?
--Bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acid and the pancreas secretes it.
17. Where does carbohydrate digestion occur, and what enzymes are involved?
--The majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestine with the help of enzymes
and accessory organs (the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver). Salivary amylase digests carbs in the
mouth and pancreatic amylase digests carbs in the small intestine
18. Intrinsic factor is needed to absorb which nutrient? Which cells in the stomach secret this?
--Intrinsic factor is a protein critical to the absorption of vitamin B12 and it is secreted by the
parietal cells in the stomach.
19. Which hormone triggers the stomach to release digestive juices? What is this digestive juice
--The hormone gastrin, secreted by stomach lining cells, stimulates gastric glands to secrete a
digestive fluid referred to as gastric juice.
20. List the accessory organs of digestion.
--Pancreas, liver, gallbladder
21. Which hormone secreted in the GI tract plays a role in eating behavior and weight regulation?
22. Define absorption, digestion, elimination, and segmentation.
--Absorption: the physiologic process by which molecules of food are taken from the GI tract into
--Digestion: the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules, either
mechanically or chemically
--Elimination: the process by which the undigested portions of food and water products are
removed from the body
--Segmentation: rhythmic contraction of the circular muscles of the intestines that squeeze
chyme, mix it, and enhance digestion and absorption of nutrients from the chyme
23. What enzyme is secreted in the mouth?
--Lysozyme is an enzyme that inhibits bacterial growth in the mouth and may assist in preventing
tooth decay. Salivary amylase is another enzyme that is secreted in the mouth and it digests
24. The smallest molecules that make up carbohydrates are called____________________.
25. The smallest molecules that make up proteins are called _____________________.
26. What type of diet causes ketosis?
--A diet low in carbohydrates causes the body to seek an alternative source of fuel for the brain
and begins to break down stored fat in a process known as ketosis. This process produces an
alternative fuel called ketones.
27. Define hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia.
--Hyperglycemia: a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal
--Hypoglycemia: a condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels
28. Define moderate alcohol consumption.
--The consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men
29. Define Metabolic Tolerance, Functional Tolerance.
--Metabolic tolerance: a condition in which the liver becomes more efficient in its breakdown of
alcohol. This means that a person’s BAC rises more slowly after consuming a certain number of
--Functional tolerance: showing few if any signs of impairment or intoxication even at high
BACs. Individuals with a functional tolerance may need to consume twice as much alcohol as
when they first started drinking in order to reach the same state of euphoria.
30. What are the steps in alcohol oxidation? What does ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) do?
--Alcohol is directly absorbed from both the stomach and the small intestine. While most alcohol
is oxidized, or broken down in the liver, a small amount is metabolized in the stomach before it
has even been absorbed. The enzyme ADH triggers the first step in alcohol degredation by
converting ethanol to acetaldehyde. Once absorbed, the alcohol moves throughout the blood
stream to the liver, where it is broken down at a fairly steady rate.
31. Name some foods sources of saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, and trans
--Saturated fats: coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream, lard, and beef fat
--Polyunsaturated fats: cottonseed, canola, corn and safflower oils
--Monounsaturated fats: olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and cashews
--Trans fats: cakes, cookies, crackers, hydrogenated oils (such as corn oil), margarine, full-fat