Name and differentiate between the two main subcategories of the vertebrate
nervous system. Central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (nerves, tissues,
Identify and describe the subdivisions of the PNS. What NTs do they use?
Autonomic nervous system = sympathetic: rest and digest (acedocoline), and
parasympathetic: fight or flight (adrenaline)
How does the spinal cord receive and send information to and from the PNS?
Spinal cord receives info through the ventral side, and leaves through the dorsal.
Differentiate between ganglion and nucleus, nerve and tract, and the basic
directional terms. Ganglion is a group of cells in the PNS, the nucleus is a group of
cells in the CNS. Nerve = axons in the PNS. Tract = axons in the CNS
Death Valley Makes Lagoons and Pools Cave In
Dorsal: to the back (think dorsal fin)
Ventral: to the belly
Medial: to the center
Lateral: away from the center
Anterior: to the top / front end
Posterior: to the bottom / rear end
Contralateral: on the opposite side
Ipsilateral: on the same side
Name the structures and systems found in the hindbrain, midbrain, and
forebrain and describe their basic functions.
Describe the functions of the ventricular system. Filled with cerebral spinal fluid
serves to cushion the brain and hold nutrients in reserve
– Lateral ventricles
– Third ventricle
– Fourth ventricle
– Central canal Lecture 11
What is the cortex composed of (e.g., grey vs. white matter)? Grey matter (layers
of cell bodies) How is surface area increased? Suclus and gyrus
What tracts allow communication between the hemispheres? Anterior commissure
Does information travel ipsilaterally or contralaterally? Usually goes
contralaterally in the pons (hindbrain)
Name the four brain lobes and describe their primary functions:
(back of the heard)
(over the ear)
Contains the hippocampus
Hearing emotion memory
(Top-back of head)
Controls touch, sensation, spatial
Impulse control Executive cognitive
Name and give examples of the four primary methods used to discern the
relationship between brain structure and function.
Effects of brain damage
Correlation of anatomy with behavior
Effects of brain stimulation
Brain activity during behavior What procedures might you use to decrease or increase activity in certain brain
areas in humans or animals (lesions to the brain, sham operations, ontogenetic…)?
What control groups are necessary for lesion studies?
Why is fMRI considered to be the “gold standard” for assessing brain activity in
humans compared to the other methods? Assesses brain activity during behavior.
PET scans use radioactive glucose, EEG uses electricty, MRI uses magne