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Brain and Behavior notes for test 2

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PSB 2000
Clare Mathes

Study guide Lecture 10: Name and differentiate between the two main subcategories of the vertebrate nervous system. Central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (nerves, tissues, everything else) Identify and describe the subdivisions of the PNS. What NTs do they use? Autonomic nervous system = sympathetic: rest and digest (acedocoline), and parasympathetic: fight or flight (adrenaline) How does the spinal cord receive and send information to and from the PNS? Spinal cord receives info through the ventral side, and leaves through the dorsal. Differentiate between ganglion and nucleus, nerve and tract, and the basic directional terms. Ganglion is a group of cells in the PNS, the nucleus is a group of cells in the CNS. Nerve = axons in the PNS. Tract = axons in the CNS Death Valley Makes Lagoons and Pools Cave In Dorsal: to the back (think dorsal fin) Ventral: to the belly Medial: to the center Lateral: away from the center Anterior: to the top / front end Posterior: to the bottom / rear end Contralateral: on the opposite side Ipsilateral: on the same side Name the structures and systems found in the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain and describe their basic functions. Describe the functions of the ventricular system. Filled with cerebral spinal fluid serves to cushion the brain and hold nutrients in reserve – Lateral ventricles – Third ventricle – Fourth ventricle – Central canal Lecture 11 What is the cortex composed of (e.g., grey vs. white matter)? Grey matter (layers of cell bodies) How is surface area increased? Suclus and gyrus What tracts allow communication between the hemispheres? Anterior commissure Does information travel ipsilaterally or contralaterally? Usually goes contralaterally in the pons (hindbrain) Name the four brain lobes and describe their primary functions: Occipital (back of the heard) Temporal (over the ear) Contains the hippocampus Hearing emotion memory Parietal (Top-back of head) Controls touch, sensation, spatial Frontal (up front) Impulse control Executive cognitive function Lecture 12 Name and give examples of the four primary methods used to discern the relationship between brain structure and function.  Effects of brain damage  Correlation of anatomy with behavior  Effects of brain stimulation  Brain activity during behavior What procedures might you use to decrease or increase activity in certain brain areas in humans or animals (lesions to the brain, sham operations, ontogenetic…)? What control groups are necessary for lesion studies? Why is fMRI considered to be the “gold standard” for assessing brain activity in humans compared to the other methods? Assesses brain activity during behavior. PET scans use radioactive glucose, EEG uses electricty, MRI uses magne
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