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study guide- test 3 for PSB2000

6 Pages

Course Code
PSB 2000
Clare Mathes

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Lecture 18 What does perception depend on? What type of sensory receptors are stimulated (e.g., law of specific nerve energies: certain receptor/brain area you will have a certain perception experience.) How many / how much they are stimulated ex: a lot= bright light, not a lot = dim light In what pattern they are stimulated What neurons those sensory neurons project to Describe the general path that stimulus energy takes through our brain, leading to conscious perception. Receptors on sensory neurons: retinal photoreceptors Nerve to the CNS: optic nerve Thalamus: lateral geniculate nucleus Primary cortex: primary visual cortex 1 (V1), also called striate cortex Association cortex: V1-V8 How does light enter the eye? Describe the path it takes through the cell layers of the retina and the path of signal transduction. Enters through the pupil. Focused by cornea and lens to the retina at the back of the eye. (Patrick cries like ryan) Describe the path it takes through the cell layers of the retina and the path of signal transduction. Photoreceptors > Horizontal cells > Bipolar cells > Amacrice cells > Ganglion cells Dark: Inhibitory neurotransmitter released – postsynaptic cell not able to fire Light: Inhibitory neurotransmitter NOT released – postsynaptic cell CAN fire How are rods and cones similar and different? Rods – Respond well to faint light; overstimulated by bright light – Abundant in periphery (outer areas of eye) – Necessary for black and white vision Cones – Need bright light to respond but provide more detailed info – Abundant in center, especially fovea (center of the eye), which is a depression in the retina where light hits unimpeded by other cells – Essential for color vision – contain specialized photopigments tuned to diff wave lengths of light. On what point of the retina are cones most densely packed?fovea With which types of cells do photoreceptors synapse? Bipolar cells Do they excite or inhibit those cells (review slide 17 of the notes)? Inhibit. On what is our perception of color based? Our perception based on the wavelength with which photons hit photoreceptors. Lecture 19 Describe the path of the optic nerve – what and where do fibers cross, and to what two areas do they project? The optic nerve meets at the optic chiasm. The axons of what type of cells make up the optic nerve, and what is the result of the optic nerve passing through the retina? The ganglion cells make of the optic nerve, and the result is a blindspot. What type of ganglion cells that project to the lateral geniculate thalamus are important for distinguishing detail and which are more important for perceiving motion? How else do these cell types differ? Parvocellular: small receptive fields, good at discerning detail, color, and answering “what” Magnocellular: large receptive fields, good at discerning motion, depth, and answering “where” Koniocellular: diverse group with multiple functions What is V1 necessary for? Visual Imagery What is it not necessary for? Blindsight Lecture 20 Describe the path that sound takes through the ear – at which point(s) does the sound travel as waves of air and where is it converted to waves through fluid? Receptors on sensory neurons: hair cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea Nerve to the CNS: auditory nerve Thalamus: medial geniculate nucleus Primary cortex: primary auditory cortex 1 (A1) Association cortex: additional auditory areas Changes from air to fluid in the middle ear in the ossicles At what points would damage cause conductive versus nerve deafness? Conductive deafness: Middle-ear abnormalities such that the sound isn’t conducted properly to the receptor cells Nerve deafness: Inner-ear abnormalities that damages the cochlea, including some or all of the receptors, and/or auditory nerve What properties of sound do we perceive as pitch and loudness? – Wave amplitude relates to loudness (e.g., larger wave height = louder sound) – Wave frequency relates to pitch (e.g., tighter waves / higher frequency = higher pitch) How are these attributes coded by activity of the auditory receptors? How frequency is coded depends on its size: – Low frequencies: hair cells on the apex of the basilar membrane fire in time to sound waves (e.g., 200 Hz = 200 action potentials per second) – High frequencies: groups of hair cells on the base of the basilar membrane fire across different phases in response to sounds waves, and their combined activity codes for a tone Loudness is coded by how many
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