PSY 2012 Quiz: Psych Test 4 Notes

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PSY 2012
Cassie Ann Stutts Berry

Psych Test 4 Notes Social Psych: Scientific study of how people influence our attributions, attitudes and actions • Social Thinking, Social Influence and Social Relations Social Thinking: • To make sense of the social world, we try to understand the cause of people’s behavior • Fundamental Attribution errors: Tendency to overlook the effect of predisposition influences on other people’s behavior o Attributions affect our analysis of behavior • Attitude: Belief that includes an emotional component- may predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events • Foot in door phenomena: The tendency people have the first agree to a small request and then comply to larger tasks later o Door in the face o Low ball o Bait and watch (fraud) • Cognitive dissonance theory: unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs o To escape mental tension, we may modify our attitudes Social Influence • Conformity: Tendency to alter ones thinking or behavior in response to group pleasure • Solomon Asch’s experiment o “Measuring visual discriminations” o Participants followed what the majority said and 37% of the time they were wrong • Normative social influence o People conform because they fear social rejection or to gain social approval • Informational social influence: o People conform because they accept the opinions of others • Factors influencing conformity o Admiration of group, direct pressure, group size, presence or absence of dissenters, culture, personal reasons. • Obedience: Behavior following the rules or instruction from those of higher authority • Milgram’s experiment: • Influence on obedience: o Authority of experimenter, location of experimenter, location of victim, disobedient peers • Social facilitation: enhanced performance on easy tasks in presence of others o Only works for easy tasks, we do worse on hard tasks when observed • Social Loafing: The tendency to become less productive in groups o People believe their contribution is unimportant ▪ Diminished feeling of responsibility o No one wants to be exploited • Deindividualization o Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster both arousal and anonymity. • Stanford Prison experiment o Procedure: ▪ Subjects randomly assigned to guard or prisoners ▪ Prisoners were assigned numbers and given prison clothes o Results: ▪ Guards began to treat prisoners cruelly, gave harsh treatments and because increasingly sadistic ▪ Prisoners began to display depression, hopelessness, anger and rebellion o Study ended early due to results • Group polarization: Tendency in a group discussion to strengthen the dominant position held by individuals in the group Social Relations • Prejudice: Negative conclusion drawn about a person, group of people or situation prior to evaluating evidence • Stereotype: Generalized (inaccurate) belief of group of people • Discrimination: Unjustifiable negative behavior towards members of an out group • Social roots of prejudice: o In Groups: “Us” o Out groups: “them” o Social inequalities: stereotypes rationalize inequalities o Emotional scapegoats: Offers a target for one’s anger • Cognitive roots of prejudice o Stereotypes beliefs are a byproduct of how we cognitively simplify the world ▪ Categorization ▪ Other-race effect ▪ Vivid cases ▪ Just world explanation (blame victim) • Aggression: Behavior intended to harm others either verbally or physically • Attraction: o Factors: ▪ Proximity: mere exposure effect ▪ Similarity: common attitudes, beliefs, interests ▪ Repricosity: high degree of mutual acceptance ▪ Physical attractiveness o Passionate vs companionate love ▪ Equity: Receiving in proportion to what you give ▪ Self-disclosure • Altruism: Helping others for unselfish reasons o When people act altruistically: ▪ Unable to escape from situation ▪ Have good time to intervene ▪ Good mood ▪ Studied research on bystander intervention • Pluralistic ignorance: “No one else seems to think it’s an emergency” • Bystander effect: Tendency of any given person to be less likely to help if other bystanders are present Personality psychology: • Personality: Characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving o Gives coherence to one’s life o Reflects both nature and nurture • Individual difference and underlying procedures o Personal tendency o Coping patterns • Freud: o Theorized using case studies o Empirical evidence was not yet firmly established in psychology o Freud had to rely mostly on developing a coherent theory of personality o 3 major assumptions: ▪ Psychic determinism ▪ Symbolic meaning ▪ Unconscious motivation • ID: The most primitive part of personality o Fights for manifestation and satisfaction of unconscious psychic energy o Driven by pleasure principle o Instinctive and un-socialized • Ego: Our largely conscious self-driven by “reality principle” o Finds socially accepted ways of meeting demands of the ID • Super ego: Represents internalized rules and ideals pressed upon us o The conscious (guilt/should nots) o Ego idea: Ideals/ should • Psychosexual stages o Oral stage (0-10 mo) ▪ Mouth related pleasure ▪ Central conflict: Wanting food to be on demand and learning the immediate gratification is not always possible ▪ Oral fixation: May cause personality anxieties related to food, smoking, etc. o Anal Stage: ▪ Bowl and Bladder related pleasure ▪ Central conflict: gaining sense of control or mastery ▪ Anal fixation: May cause personality anxieties related to order/cleanliness o Phallic stage ▪ Genital related pleasure ▪ Central conflict: Tension between illicit a sexual desire and civilizations approved sexuality ▪ Genital fixation: May cause personality anxieties related to genital pleasure o Latency Stage: (6- puberty) ▪ May not be much going on- sexual feelings are dormant ▪ No noticeable conflicts ▪ No fixations o Genital stage (puberty and up) ▪ Maturation of sexual interests ▪ Success entails finding healthy expressions of sexuality ▪ Fixation: No new fixation, but prior fixations could be pulled forward: unresolved conflicts find new ways to be resurfaced • Defense mechanism: The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality • Evaluating Freud: o Most psychologists do not deem sex the sole basis of personality and they reject that suppressed sexuality causes psychological disorders • What is a trait o A relatively stable predisposition to feel and act a certain way o Personality is Composed of many different traits • 5 factor model o Groups all personalities into 5 broad categories ▪ Openness to experience ▪ Conscientiousness ▪ Extraversion ▪ Agreeableness ▪ Neuroticism • Openness: Imaginative, intellectual curious, creative • Person situation theory
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