PSY 2012 Quiz: Gen Psych review exam 3

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PSY 2012
Cassie Ann Stutts Berry

Gen Psych review exam 2 Chapter 6- Learning Cognitive models of learning • Latent Learning • Observational learning • Insight learning Classical Conditioning • 1904 Noble prize for research on digestion • Used dogs to study salivation • Dogs show physiological effects when cues of food were presented • Stimulus and response learning o Associate stimuli that are paired together o Hear bell-> get good o Response is salivation • An Unconditioned stimulus triggers an unconditioned response o Unconditioned= not learned o Unconditioned stimulus: Food o Unconditioned response: Salivation • A conditioned stimulus triggers a conditioned response o Salivating is an unconditioned response to food, but a conditioned response to a bell o Conditional upon adaptive learning o Conditioned stimulus: A bell o Conditioned response: Salivation Process of conditioning • Acquisition o The initial learning of an association between a neural stimulus and an unconditioned response o Timing is key for acquisition ▪ Best= Unconditioned stimulus follows conditioned stimulus by about 500ms (as a general finding) • Extinction o Repeated presentation of Conditioned stimulus without and Unconditioned stimulus, will eventually eliminate response to conditioned stimulus o Spontaneous recovery happens when conditioned stimulus briefly regains its power to elicit the response ▪ Extinction does not erase learning, it suppresses it. Generalization and Discrimination • Stimulus generalization: Tendency to respond to stimulus that are similar to Conditioned stimulus o Bell-> Triangle • Stimulus discrimination is ability to distinguish between the conditioned stimulus and other stimuli o Bell does not equal Drum • Little Albert: Afraid of rats after being exposed to loud noises Limits of classical conditioning • Cognitive process matter: o Predictably of associations affect strength of conditioned responses • Biological constraints matter: o Associative learning is adaptive ▪ Links extend over several hours ▪ Some more likely than others Stimulus Response vs. Stimulus Organism Response • SR has given way to SRO • The way an organism responds to a stimulus depends on what the stimulus means to it • Classical and operant conditioning depend on thinking Biological influences on learning • Conditioned-taste aversions o Develop only after one trial o Can have very long delays o Shows little generalizations • Contradicts equipotential • Preparedness for certain phobias also contradicts equipotential • We are evolutionarily pre disposed to be more afraid of certain things o Snakes, Spiders vs. Cars and Guns • May make us develop illusory Correlations • Instinctive Drift: Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement • Biological influences place limits on what kind of behaviors we can train through reinforcements Classical vs. operant conditioning • Classical is an emphasis on automatic responses to stimulus as a result of associative learning o Essentially involuntary • Operant emphasis on controlled behavior enacted by an organism to influence its environment o Environmental consequences shape behavior Basics of operant conditioning • Behavior can operate an environment to produce some effects • Past experience affects present behavior Behaviors have consequences: • Rewards increase, behaviors increase • Punishments increase, behaviors decrease Law of effect • Behavior strengthened by rewards, diminished by punishment • Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) o Cats in a box experiment ▪ Cat left in a box, and would eventually find its way out to get a treat, and eventually found a way to get out faster Reward Type 1: • Positive reinforcement o Something pleasant is introduced to environment o Ex) employee of the month award Reward type 2: • Negative reinforcement o Something is taken out of an environment o Schedules of reinforcement: ▪ Ratio: based on the number of responses ▪ Interval: Based on time ▪ Fixed: Consistent number of responses ▪ Variable: Changing number of responses or time between reinforcements Punishments: decrease behavior Punishment Type 1: • Positive punishment: o Something unpleasant is introduced Punishment Type 2: • Negative punishment o Something pleasant is removed Reinforcements increase likelihood of behavior, punishments decrease likelihood of behavior Latent Learning: The case of cognitive maps • Edward Tolman’s (1948) research o There is evidence that learning occurs in the absence of obvious rewards and punishments ▪ Group 1: Control (food everyday) ▪ Group 2: Food at the end of the seventh day ▪ Group 3: Food at the end of the 3 day o Main point: Not all learning requires obvious rewards and punishment Observational learning (social learning) • Learning occurs by watching others behaviors and observing the resulting consequences • Albert Bandura: o Studied modeling (limitation of specific behaviors) in children o Bobo Doll experiment: ▪ Experimental group: Watched a violent video ▪ Control group: Watched a video that wasn’t violent ▪ Independent variable: Type of videos ▪ Dependent variable: imitation of aggression o Suggests (observational learning) that people and other animals form mental representations of stimuli, behavioral responses and consequences (reinforcements and punishments) without having direct experience with them Mirror Neurons • Become activated when an animal observes or performs an action • May play a role in observational learning and having empathy for others Insight learning: • Kohler found that Sultan, his star chimp, discovered how to insert one bamboo stick inside another to create an extra-long stick, thereby allowing him to obtain food • Kohler apes figured out how to get a banana suspended well above their heads, stack a bunch of boxes atop each other, and climb on top of the box. Integence and IQ testing Intelligence • Socially constructed between cultures and researchers o Science doesn’t always agree • Different cultures have different definitions of intelligence • General vs. specific abilities General Intelligence • Intelligence comprised of the overarching ability that underlies other abilities o G= General Abilities o S= Specific Abilities • How might we identify G? • Factor Analysis: Statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) o Math, Verbal ad Logic are all related (correlated) Fluid and crystalized intelligence • “Intelligence” is a mix of two capacities o Cattell (1971) and Horn (1994) • Fluid Intelligence: The capacity to learn new ways for solving problems • Crystalized intelligence: The accumulated knowledge of the world we gain over time Does intelligence involve more than academic smarts? • Intelligence theorists say yes • Howard Gardner's theory of 8 intelligences • Robert Sternberg’s theory of 3 intelligences Gardner’s Theory of 3 intelligences • Emphasized the fairly unrelated nature of some types of intelligence o Some experts may be totally average in domains outside of their expertise • Abilities included in this theory: o Linguistic, Mathematical, Spatial, Intrapersonal (Knowledge of self), Bodily- Kinesthetic, interpersonal (Communicate w others), naturalist Sternberg’s model of intelligence • Analytical: ability to reason logically • Creative: Our ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions • Practical: The ability to solve real-world problems, especially those involving others Emotional intelligence: • An aspect of social intelligence includes ability to: o Perceive emotions ▪ Recognize them in faces, music and stories o Understand emotions ▪ Predict them and how they change and blend o Manage emotions ▪ How to express them appropriately in varied situations o Use emotions ▪ For adaptive and creative thinking Testing intelligence • Self-reports only correlate .2 and.3 with objective measures of intelligence • The double curse of incompetence and metacognitive skills • Calculating IQ o The development of norms allows us to compare a person’s results on a test to others o Ninet’s concept of mental age led to development of the intelligence quotient 𝑀𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑔𝑒 ▪ 𝐶ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑔𝑒𝑥 100 = 𝐼𝑄 o Works on children, but not adults o Modern IQ tests use a deviation IQ that eliminates age effects o Compares each person to what is normal for his/her own age group • IQ testing today o Most commonly used IQ test for adults in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale o Consists of 15 subsets that give five scores: ▪ Overall IQ ▪ Verbal comprehension ▪ Perceptual reasoning ▪ Working memory ▪ Processing speed o Culture-fair IQ test ▪ Consist of abstract reasoning items that do not depend on language o College Admissions tests ▪ Designed to test overall competence in a specific domain or predict academic success ▪ Correlate with IQ .7-.8 ▪ Coaching appears to have very little effects, especially when practice effects are taken into account o Reliability of IQ scores ▪ In adults, scores tend to be highly stable over long periods of time ▪ Prior to age 3 IQ tests are unstable and poor predictors of adult IQ o Validity of IQ scores ▪ Moderately successful at predicting grades ▪ Predict performance across a wide variety of occupations and associated with health related outcomes (Health literacy) ▪ Relationships hold up even when social class is accounted for Flynn effect • Global increase in intelligence over the past 50 years o An average of 3 IQ points per decade Wisdom • Application of intelligence towards a common good • Wise people balance 3 competing interests o Self interest o Concerns for others/ Broader society Developmental Psychology How behavior and mental processes change over a lifespan How to measure developmental changes?
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