Study Guides (238,486)
United States (119,806)
Psychology (299)
SOP 3004 (46)

Exam 1 Study Guide

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Florida State University
SOP 3004
Jessica Casico

Chapter 1 Learning Objectives 1. What is social psychology? How is it different from other sciences? Other psychological fields? Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another. Social psychology focuses more on how individual in general, view and affect one another and less on individual’s differences. 2. What does social psychology focus on? This branch of study focuses more on the individual rather than experimentation. 3. Be able to (briefly) explain the history of social psychology. Social psychology only recently came out as a form a specific area of scientific study. After WWII, psychologists wanted to study why people were so easily and readily willing to comply with the authority figure of Nazi Germany. 4. What are the most important common themes of social psychology, what do they mean, and why are they important? o We construct our reality: people intentionally dismiss facts that do not work in their favor and acknowledge the facts that do. o The duplex mind: automatic and unconscious mind are continuously working even though a person’s controlled and conscious mind is not aware of the switch. (Ex. Cocktail party complex) o Power of the situation: people in different situations seize opportunities that are presented to them (ex. Bill Gates) o Biological roots: actions we do now have a purpose—the environment we evolved to thrive in is different than the one we live in now 5. In what ways do values influence social psychology? (from the book) Our inner attitudes affect out behavior. Value influence the types of people who are attracted to various disciplines. Psychologists investigate how values form, why they change, and how they influence attitudes and actions. 6. Why can’t we just use common sense to tell us about social psychology? We cannot just use common sense because it does not allow us to understand the underlying reasons for why we do what we do. 7. What is the hindsight bias? The tendency to exaggerate how a person knew the out coming of an event only after the seeing how something was going to turn out –also know as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon 8. What is the scientific method? How does it apply to psychology? Purpose, research, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, and conclusion. Psychologists propose theories that organize their observations and imply testable hypothesis and practical predictions. 9. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Theory: integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events. Hypothesis: a testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events—becomes practical when it is predictable 10. What is the difference between an experiment and correlational research? Experiments will show cause and effect relationships, whereas correlation research only shows that relationships exist, yet it doesn’t explain why. 11. What can and can’t correlational research tell us about human behavior, thoughts, and feelings? It does not show those factors because it does not explain why or how, it just tells us that a relationship exists. 12. What is the 3 rdvariable problem with correlational research? What is the directionality problem? 3rd variable problem: type of confounding in which a third variable leads to a mistaken causal relationship between two others directionality problem: A difficulty in the correlational method of research whereby it is known that two variables are related, but it is unclear which is causing the other. 13. What is the goal and what are the features of experimental research? Why are these features important for achieving the goal of experimental research? The goal of experimental research is to find a cause and effect relationship in hopes of explaining behavior. 14. What are independent and dependent variables? Independent variable: the experimental variable that a researcher manipulates Dependent variable: the variable who reaction is dependent to the manipulated variable 15. What is an operational definition and why is it important? Operational definition: An operational definition describes exactly what the variables are and how they are measured within the context of your study. It is important because it specifically outlines what is being controlled so the experiment accurately reflects the hypothesis and data. 16. What are the ways in which we evaluate a measure that we are using to assess a certain construct? Surveys? 17. What are demand characteristics? (from book) A demand characteristic is a subtle cue that makes participants aware of what the experimenter expects to find or how participants are expected to behave. Demand characteristics can change the outcome of an experiment because participants will often alter their behavior to conform to the experimenters expectations. It is important to note that the participant may or may not be right in their guess. Even if the individual is wrong about the experimenter's intentions-- can have an influence on how the participant behaves. Chapter 2 Learning Objectives 1. What is the spotlight effect? What is the illusion of transparency and what does your book say about this and feeling nervous in front of others? (part from class, part from book) The spotlight effect refers to the idea that people believe that others are paying more attention to their appearances and their behavior than they really are. The illusion of transparency is the illusion that others can read our concealed emotions and are easily read. The book says that less people are noticing that we are nervous than what we suppose. 2. What is self-awareness? What is the different between public and private? Self-awareness: attention directed at the self—helps motivate us if our goals are possible. If there is a large discrepancy between who we are and who we want to be, it feels bad and we try to escape it. 3. What are failings of our self-awareness? Know the 2 examples from class. Socks: there were seven identical socks lined up next to one another, and the participants were told to pick two. When they were asked why, they would make up reasons. They were unaware that they just picked the socks because they were the last ones on the end of the line. Women on cars: men were show two different pictures of two different cars with the same hot woman on the car. When asked which had better gas mileage, etc. They responded that they were both about the same, even though they were completely different cars. 4. What are the different types of self? What happens when there are discrepancies between them? Ideal self: the person that you want to be Ought self: the duty you have as a person Feared self: the person you dread becoming When there are discrepancies between the actual self and the other selves, we may feel sad, anxious, or relieved. 5. What are the 5 ways that we learn about ourselves that we talked about in class (know their real names) and what are some problems associated with them? Looking-glass self: doesn’t explain why we truly hold specific beliefs, values or actions Introspection: often act a certain way and then base opinions, feelings, and attitudes off of those actions Social Comparison: looking at others to determine differences Self-perception: most people will not tell you the bad things about yourself— projection of their flaws onto you Self-Evaluation Maintenance theory: we try to distance ourselves from people who will make us look bad 6. What are upward and downward social comparisons? When
More Less

Related notes for SOP 3004

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.