SOP3004 Crash Course Review
1. What are the differences between emotion, affect, and mood?
Emotion Affect Mood
A specific conscious General disposition or state Valence of evaluation
evaluation to some event Ex: I’m in a bad mood toward an event
Ex: I’m afraid of alligators Ex: I have a negative
affective reaction to spiders
2. How strong/fast are affective responses? Are affective responses automatic or
controlled and what are the implications of this?
o Affect refers to the experience of feeling or emotion. Affect is a key part of the
process of an organism's interaction with stimuli. Affective responses, on the other
hand, are more basic and may be less problematical in terms of assessment.
Brewin has proposed two experiential processes that frame noncognitive
relations between various affective experiences: those that are prewired
dispositions (i.e., nonconscious processes), able to "select from the total stimulus
array those stimuli that are causally relevant, using such criteria as perceptual
salience, spatiotemporal cues, and predictive value in relation to data stored in
memory" and those that are automatic (i.e., subconscious processes) characterized
as "rapid, relatively inflexible and difficult to modify... (requiring) minimal
attention to occur and... (capable of being) activated without intention or
3. How does affect motivate behavior and why does it do this?
o Effect of emotion is dependent upon specific emotion—serves to motivate
behavior most of the time
• Disgust – Avoid disease
• Sadness – Seek social support
• Sexual Arousal – Find a romantic partner
• Love – Maintain Relationship 4. How does affect contribute to learning and decision making and what was the study
discussed in class that demonstrates this point? Describe the study and what they
o Spikes in physiological arousal
o Antonio Damasio studied patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex
o Patients showed no arousal in response to dramatic images
5. What were the different theories of emotion discussed in class? Which is the
currently popular theory?
o JamesLange Theory: people experience emotion because they perceive their
bodies’ physiological responses to external events. According to this theory,
people don’t cry because they feel sad. Rather, people feel sad because they cry,
and, likewise, they feel happy because they smile. This theory suggests that
different physiological states correspond to different experiences of emotion.
o The CannonBard Theory: states that the experience of emotion happens at the
same time that physiological arousal happens. Neither one causes the other. The
brain gets a message that causes the experience of emotion at the same time that
the autonomic nervous system gets a message that causes physiological arousal.
o Schachter and Singer’s TwoFactor Theory: people’s experience of emotion
depends on two factors: physiological arousal and the cognitive interpretation of
that arousal. When people perceive physiological symptoms of arousal, they look
for an environmental explanation of this arousal. The label people give an
emotion depends on what they find in their environment.
6. What is misattribution of arousal and what were the methods and findings of the
study examples we discussed in class?
o White et al. (1981)
o Men ran in place for 15 seconds vs. 120 seconds
o Saw a video of an attractive woman or unattractive woman they expected to meet
7. What is the domain specificity theory of emotions?
8. What are the specific functions of specific emotions discussed in class?
EXPRESSION MOTION CUES Happiness Raising and lowering of mouth corners
Lowering of mouth corners
Sadness Raise inner portion of brows
Surprise Eyes open wide to expose more white
Jaw drops slightly
Fear Eyes open
Mouth opens slightly
Upper lip is raised
Disgust Nose bridge is wrinkled
Anger Lips pressed firmly
9. What were the methods and findings of the study on attention and love? Maner,
Rouby, & Gonzaga (2008)
o In their research experiment, they had 113 participants who were currently in a
romantic relationship. Those who were in the experimental group were told to write
an essay about their romantic partner, while the other half was to write an essay about
a time when they were really happy. The scientific hypothesis was that the people
thinking about their romantic partner would pay less attention to the images of
attractive people of the opposite sex than those just thinking happy thoughts. It turned
out the hypothesis was correct—in fact, those thinking about their romantic partner
were more compelled to them than to the images
10. How do we know that emotional expressions are universal and automatic?
o There are six known emotions that are easy to identify crossculturally—within
11. What are the benefits of having universal emotional expressions?
o Communications for survival
o Emotions are functional
12. What factors affect how we perceive emotions? What factors affect how we express
o Our emotions
o Our moods 13. What are the gender differences in emotion, if there are any?
o Women are better predictors of other’s emotions
Chapter 4: Attitudes and Behaviors
1. What are attitudes? How are they different from beliefs?
o Attitudes are favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or
someone (often rooted in ones’ beliefs, and exhibited in one’s feeling and intended
o Beliefs are what people personally “know” to be true. They’re our convictions,
even if others disagree.
2. What were the sources of attitudes covered in class? How does each source affect
o Affect: Evaluative reactionFavorable/unfavorable
o Cognition: Attitude based on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude
object—people like information that is easier to process
o Behavior: An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an
3. What is the mere exposure effect and what were the methods and findings of the
study on it that we discussed in class?
o Mereexposure effect: is the theory that the more people are exposed to a particular
subject, the more they will tend to like it
o The more you hear a song on the radio, you are more inclined to like it if
you continue to hear it over and over again.
4. What is attitude polarization?
o Attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves they are right
5. When do attitudes affect behavior? Know the studies that demonstrate that attitudes
o Attitudes typically affect behaviors when a situation currently negatively affects
the person. o Housing crisis at Cornell: overflowed dorms with students, so the ones sleeping on
the floor and in the study rooms petitioned to the Dean, whereas the students who
had beds did not do anything because they were not being nearly as affected as
those who had beds and rooms to sleep in.
6. What are implicit and explicit attitudes and how do they differ? Is it possible to have
opposing implicit and explicit attitudes?
o Explicit attitudes controlled and conscious evaluative responses
o “I like Johnny Depp”
o Implicit attitudes – automatic and nonconscious evaluative responses
7. How does social desirability affect our ability to measure attitudes?
o Sometimes people will say what he or she thinks the other people want to hear.
8. What are some ways that we discussed in class that researchers measure attitude
driven behaviors “under the radar”?
9. What is the Implicit Association Test and how does it work?
o A computerdriven assessment of the implicit attitudes. The test uses reaction times
to measure people’s automatic associations between attitude objects and evaluative
o Easier pairings are taken to indicate stronger unconscious responses.
10. When are implicit vs. explicit attitudes formed?
o Implicit attitudes are subconscious, whereas explicit attitudes can be arranged to
11. What is cognitive dissonance and what are the effects of it?
o Cognitive dissonance: the tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of
two inconsistent cognitions
o People will change either behavior or attitude to alleviate the tension.
12. How does insufficient justification affect cognitive dissonance effects and what was
the study that demonstrated these effects (know methods and results)?
o Festinger’s: $1 and $20 Experiment
13. What effect does attitude salience have on attitudes predicting behavior? (from the
book). o We are more likely to do things and act in a certain way, if our attitudes properly
and accurately reflect them.
14. How does the attitudesfollowbehavior principle relate to morality? (from the book).
o After making important decisions, we usually reduce dissonance by upgrading the
chosen alternative and upgrading the unchose option.
15. What does the book say about comparing cognitive dissonance and selfperception
theories? (from the book)
o Selfpresentation theory suggests that people who especially selfmonitor their
behavior hoping to create good impressions will adapt their attitude reports to
appear consistent with their actions.
o Selfperception theory: when we assume our attitudes are weak, we simply observe
our behavior and its circumstances, then infer our behavior and circumstances
o Evidence supports predictions from both theories, suggesting that each describes
what happens under certain circumstances.
Chapter 6: Conformity
1. Is conformity a good or bad thing? Provide examples for both.
• Wait in line for your turn
• Leaving a tip for service
• Showing team spirit at a game
• Joining in racist behavior
• Drinking and driving
2. How is conformity culturally specific?
o Our culture idealizes individuality—so we all conform to be individualists
3. Why would we have evolved the tendency to conform?
o It is within our human nature to conform—hundreds of thousands of years ago,
those who did not conform to the group did not survive—they would be out
4. How do mirror neurons relate to conformity? o Our brain is activated when we watch others. When we see people we like do
certain things, we are likely to mimic those things,
5. What is the chameleon effect?
o Our natural mimicry of other’s postures and language generally elicits liking
except when echoing other’s negative expressions such as anger.
6. What were the methods and findings of Sherif’s “vision” experiment?
o Subjects sat in a dark room in either groups of 3 or alone. Then when they were
placed in a group over a course of few days their responses to how far the light
traveled, converged to the same measurement.
o Gave answers that support the beliefs of the group.
7. What were the methods and findings of Asch’s conformity experiments?
o Asch had 1 participant join 5 others in a room for a visual perception test. At first
everyone would give the same responses, but as time went on, the other 5
confederates would start giving obviously wrong answers.
o To keep dissonance out of the group, the participant would conform, knowingly
that the answer was wrong.
8. What factors decreased conformity in Asch’s experiments?
o On the third trial one of the confederates allied with the participant, and there
seemed to be a division within the group
9. What are the two types of influence, when do they happen, and what type of
conformity do they create?
o Informational: people assume majority is correct, private acceptance
o Normative: people fear social rejection, public compliance
10. How and why do the following affect conformity?
a. Group size: the more people in a group, the more likely it is that they all conform
to do or think the same
b. Unanimity: all you need is one other person—in Asch’s study, there was one
dissenter, conformity happened ¼ times as often
c. Cohesion: the extent to which members of a group are bound together—more
influenced by those we feel close to like: family affiliations, ethnic affiliations,
and activity affiliations d. Status: people of higher status typically have a greater impact on converging a
group of people
e. Public response: people conform when responses are given publically—jury
decisions, voting behavior, and survey responses
f. Prior Commitment (from the book): after making judgment and then hearing
different responses from all the others members of the group people nearly never
back down from their original statement.
11. What were the methods and findings of the “staring at the sky” study?
o In 1968, the social psychologists Stanley Milgram, Leonard Bickman, and Lawrence
Berkowitz decided to cause a little trouble. First they put a single person on a street
corner and had him look up at an empty sky for sixty seconds. A tiny fraction of the
passing pedestrians stopped to see what the guy was looking at, but most just walked
past. Next time around, the psychologists put five skywardlooking men on the corner.
This time, four times as many people stopped to gaze at the empty sky. When the
psychologists put fifteen men on the corner, 45 percent of all passers by stopped, and
increasing the cohort of observers yet again made more than 80 per cent of pedestrians
tilt their heads and look up. This study appears at first glance, to be another
demonstration of people's willingness to conform. But in fact it illustrated something
different, namely the idea of "social proof", which is the tendency to assume that if lots of
people are doing something or believe something, there must be a good reason why.
12. What does the book say about reactance and what are some examples of it? (from
o Occurs when a person feels that someone or something is taking away his or her choices
or limiting the range of alternatives
13. What do the Galinsky (2008) and Quinn (2002) studies say about whether
conformity always works? What are their methods and results?
o When held accountable for outcome of an event, participants did not conform to a
14. What major 20 century event influenced the ideas behind Milgram’s obedience
o What were the methods and findings of Milgram’s obedience study? • One person is the teach, the other is the learner
o Rigged so that the participant is always the teacher
• Procedure: teacher shocks the learner for error—volts go up by 15 each time up to
450—to see how far the participants will go
o What are the factors that increased obedience in Milgram’s study?
o Findings: proximity to authority figure and authority of the figure both factor into
the making the participant believe that they re forced to do this.
o How is authority communicated?
o In person
o Why do small increments of negative behavior make it easier/more likely for a
person to obey orders to do antisocial behaviors?
o Don’t assume that it will truly cause any harm—don’t realize it
Chapter 7: Persuasion
1. What is persuasion? Know the real life examples of persuasion presented in class.
o Process by which a message induces a change in beliefs, attitudes or behaviors.
o Real-life examples: politics, purchasing, getting out of a ticket, or getting into a
2. What are the two routes in the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion and what
are characteristics of each?
o Central route to persuasion
o Peripheral route to persuasion
3. What are the heuristics mentioned in class that people use in the peripheral route
and how does each affect persuasion?
o Audience is not analytical or involved
o Cues trigger liking and acceptance, but often only temporary
4. What are the elements of persuasion?
o The communicator
o The message
o How the message is communicated
o The audience 5. How does expertise and trustworthiness relate to speaker credibility and
o We are more likely to agree with someone who is knowledgeable, confident and
who talks fast because we assume that the are expertise in the subject of which
they’re speaking. We are also keen to believe people who seem to be trustworthy.
6. How does attractiveness and similarity relate to persuasion and when is persuasion
more likely for certain topics regarding similarity?
o People who are physically attractive are more persuasive because we like pretty
people. For subject preference, we tend to like things that are similar and familiar
7. When do rational appeals work better?
o The works best when trying to appeal to intellectuals.
8. Why can too much fear in a persuasive message be dangerous? (from the book)
o Can further drive them away from the targeted response.
9. Does repetition increase or decrease persuasion?
10. Are personal experiences or the media stronger influences?
o Yes, because it is relatable/ similar.
11. What is the 2-step flow of communication and how does it relate to how a message is
o most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in
turn are influenced by the mass media. So according to this model, ideas flow
from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population.
12. What medium (written, audio, or video) increases persuasion the most?
o Writing is the most persuasive when the material is hard to understand.
13. What age group is most susceptible to persuasion?
o Young people are the most influential because they do not have all the life
experience, like older people have.
14. What happens to persuasion attempts when a person is forewarned about the
o They are less likely to listen to the information being given, and they actually may
even revert back to their own opinion. 15. What is need for cognition and how does it relate to persuasion, especially the
elaboration likelihood model of persuasion?
o A personality variable reflecting the extent to which individuals are inclined
towards effortful cognitive activities.
16. Does stimulating thinking about the topic increase or decrease persuasion?
o Makes stronger messages more persuasive and weaker messages less persuasive.
17. What are the typical characteristics of cults that make people persuaded to join and
participate in them? (from the book)
• Agroup typically characterized by
o Distinctive rituals and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or person
o Isolation from the surrounding “evil” culture
o Acharismatic culture
18. What is attitude inoculation and how does it decrease the likelihood of persuasion?
(from class and book)
• Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks
come, they’ll have refutations available
• Counterarguments can prevent persuasion
19. What is reactance theory and how is it related to persuasion? (from class and book)
• When people feel that their freedom to choose an action is threatened, they get an
unpleasant feeling called ‘reactance’. This also motivates them to perform the
threatened behavior, thus proving that their free will has not been compromised.
20. Know the different types of persuasion techniques and the psychological principle
that they work off of. The persuasion techniques include:
a. Foot-in-the-door: gain target’s compliance with a small request—then make a
b. Lowball: get an agreement to a specific agreement, then change the terms of the
c. Bait-and-switch: advertise a low price for a particular item, then describe course
as otherwise—suggest a more expensive alternative
d. Labeling: assign the target a trait label, then seek compliance with a label-
e. Door-in-the-face: backing down from a larger to a smaller request f. That’s-not-all: initial request immediately followed bonus or discount
g. Scarcity: fast approaching deadline
Chapter 8: Groups
1. What is the definition of a group? What are the factors of entativity that allow us to
see a group instead of the individual members?
o Group: Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with
and influence one another
o How much the group is seen as a single unit
• Similarity (looks, beliefs)
• Shared fate
2. What are the methods and results for the Gramzow & Gaertner (2005) minimal
groups study? What does this tell us about what we think about our group and
• P’s saw pictures and asked how many of an item are in the picture
• P’s categorized as overestimators or underestimators
• P’s read 36 statements about typical overestimators and typical underestimators
• Half positive and half negative
• We favor our group opposed to other groups.
3. What were Norman Triplett’s original findings on social facilitation?
• Original meaning: the tendency to perform simple or welllearned tasks better
when others are present
4. How does the presence of others affect performance and what does this depend on?
• Causes them to do better than they normally would do on a hard task, but struggle
on a realitvely easy task.
5. What is the current definition of social facilitation and social inhibition?
• The strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others 6. What were the methods and findings of the pool hall study? What does this tell us
about our performance when alone versus in groups? How does our skill level
7. What is social loafing and why does it happen?
o Social loafing: exert less effort when effort pooled by the group
• Personal effort decreases as group size increases
8. What does your book say are the factors that decrease social loafing? (from the
• Creating some form of performance measurement for each individual, that
way they will be motivated to do well, as it will be indicated to their peers and
• Add some creativity to the task so that it is not boring, when something is fun
people are more motivated to do it
• Make the importance of the task known, explicitly state its impact and
9. What is deindividuation and how do large crowds induce these feelings? Know the
studies about suicide baiting, trick or treating, and physical anonymity.
o The loss of selfawareness and lack of evaluation apprehension in groups
o Consider the baiting of suicidal jumpers
o Examined 21 instances of suicidal jumpers when crowds present
o When crowd was small and exposed to daylight baiting much less likely
o Less anonymous and more responsible
o Trick or Treat Study (Diener et al., 1976)
o Asked children to “take one”
o Alone or in groups
o Children were either asked their names or left anonymous
o Who took extra candy?
10. What is group polarization and what were the methods and findings of the study on
o Group polarization: tendency for group discussion to strengthen initial leanings
o E.g., fraternity members
o Group discussions and prejudiced attitudes 11. How does the confirmation bias and group polarization interact to influence
o When people hear things that further approve their opinion, they further their
ideas to what they believe.
o Ex: highly prejudice people will become more prejudice whereas nonprejudice
become less prejudice.
12. How does informational influence and normative influence affect group
o It further divides the group. Hearing someone’s opinion makes us agree with their
13. What does your book say about group polarization in terrorist organizations and
what does it conclude is the best way to prevent terrorism? (from the book)
o Inhibit potential recruits from joining the Taliban in the first place
14. What is groupthink and what are the symptoms of it?
o Groupthink: the type of thinking that occurs in a group when concurrenceseeking
becomes so dominant that it overrides realistic appraisal of alternative courses of
o Symptomsoverestimating the group, closedminded, cohesive of group,
insulation of the group.
15. What are mindguards in groupthink?
o Those who protect group from information that disagrees with group stance
16. As a group leader, what can you do to prevent groupthink?
o Be impartial don’t begin with position
o Encourage critical evaluation assign a devil’s advocate
o Occasionally subdivide group and reunite
o Welcome critiques
o Have final meeting to air any lingering concerns
1. What are the definitions of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination? How do they
differ? o Prejudice: a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
o Stereotyping: a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people
Sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information.
o Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members.
o They differ in various ways—prejudice is a negative attitude, discrimination is a negative behavior.
2. Are stereotypes always negative? Always wrong? Always conscious?
o Stereotypes are not always negative, and not always conscious.
3. What is the difference between traditional and modern discrimination?
o Traditional discrimination is centered around explicit discriminations provoked by conscious prejudices,
whereas modern discrimination is entered around the implicit prejudices, which are more subtle, but often just
4. What is aversive racism? How does that relate to the Frey and Gartner (1986) study, and
when would we expect to see aversive racism?
o Aversive racism is alternating positive and negative responses to Black people. In the study, they examined
how willing the white participants were to help the white or black participant. People would change their
racism behavior when working with the person of the opposite race.
5. What are benevolent and hostile sexism?
o Benevolent sexism: paternalism, seeing women as virtuous and fragile
o Hostile sexism: angry responses to feminism and female dominance
6. What are the social origins of prejudice? How do they help perpetuate it? (From book)
o Prejudice is believed to be stemmed as in group and out group biasness. Pretty much every conflict in human history
has involved people making distinctions on the basis of who is a member of their own race, religion, social class, and
so on. The question we were interested in is: Where do these types of group distinctions come from?
7. Know the 3 parts of Social Identity Theory. How does SIT relate to prejudice?
o Social identity is the “we” aspect of our selfconcept; the part of our answer to “who am I?” that comes from
our group memberships.
1. We want to feel good about ourselves.
2. Our identity (partly) comes from groups of which we belong.
3. Seeing our group as better than other groups raises selfesteem.
8. How is categorization related to prejudice? Know the line categorization study. What does
this tell us about how people perceive group differences (think accentuation and outgroup
o Categorization is our way of placing people, including ourselves, into groups—labeling them also gives us a
way to identify them. We categorize people by their common characteristics.
o Accentuation: Tendency to exaggerate differences between members of different categories o Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
Tendency to perceive more similarity among members of groups we don’t belong to than among
members of our own group
“They all look the same”
9. What is an illusory correlation? How is it related to prejudice? What do they tell us about
how we perceive the behavior of others?
o Illusionary correlation: Perceiving a correlation where none exist or overestimating it’s magnitude
o Typically caused by “distinctiveness”
10. What is the twostage activation model (Devine, 1989)? How do motivation and ability
affect stereotype activation? How do motivation and ability affect stereotype application?
Know the studies that show these effects.
o Twostage activation model: in which an a primed person will allow a stereotype come to by, but is not
deemed prejudicial until he or she applies to stereotype to another person through discrimination. Essentially
Devine was stating that people may be implicitly prejudice but act in a way that permits him or her to act in
away that prejudice cannot be detected. However, through her research she was able to detect those who
were prejudice by how he or she associated good things with white people and bad things with black people.
o Motivation affects stereotype activation by allowing people to satisfy their goals—comprehension goals which
result in predictability and security.
o Ability to stereotype affects application of stereotypes because it allows us to apply our preconceived ideas
about how particular people think and behave.
MOTIVATION: Activate stereotypes if low motivation
ABILITY: Activate stereotypes if have ability to perceive group membership
MOTIVATION: Apply stereotypes when low motivation
ABILITY: Apply stereotypes if do not have ability to stop it
11. What is the dual attitude approach?
o Dual attitude approach: differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes towards the
12. What are the differences between implicit and explicit prejudice? What do they predict?
o Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change with
practice that forms new habits.
o People have explicit & implicit attitudes towards social groups Explicit prejudice
Predict overt bias, policy attitudes
o Implicit prejudice
Often more negative
Predict nonverbal bias, split second decisions
13. What are the potential implications of stereotypes that we discussed in class?
o Police responses to criminal suspects—they are more likely to believe a black man for committing a blue
collar crime such as theft, whereas they would be more likely to believe a white man for committing a white
collar crime, like money laundering.
14. What was Jane Elliott’s brown eyes/blue eyes study? What did it demonstrate about
o She was a schoolteacher who divided her 2 grade class up depending on whether they had blue eyes or
brown eyes, like Nazi Germany, to demonstrate how easily discrimination can be started and spread.
15. Know the methods and results of movie study. What are the implications of attritional
ambiguity in discrimination?
o Participants were told either it was the same movie or a different movie but that they’re were handicapped
people in there. So over half sat with the handicap people, yet only 17% sat with he handicapped people if it
were a different movie.
16. What are the effects of being the target of discrimination?
o Being targeted by discrimination causes people to become more selfconscious. If they are expected to do
poorly, then they more thank likely will.
17. What is stereotype threat? What are its implications for performance?
o Stereotype threat: a disruptive concern when facing negative stereotype that one will be evaluated based on
a negative stereotype. Unlike selffulfilling prophecies that hammer one’s reputation into one’s selfconcept,
stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
18. What is the contact hypothesis? What conditions are necessary for prejudice reduction?
o Contact hypothesis: suggests that by simply exposing people to members of different groups that prejudice
should be reduced.
o Condition under which contact can reduce prejudice—
Outgroup members have traits and abilities challenging stereotypes
Contact is supported by social norms
Groups are of equal status
Contact occurs in personal interactions Groups engage in cooperative activities to achieve a common goal
19. What is needed in order to reduce prejudice according to Devine?
o She states that people must first develop the motivation to respond without prejudice, and then develop the
ability to respond consistently with their beliefs.
20. What does the text say about selffulfilling prophecies and discrimination? (from the book)
o Once formed, stereotypes tend to perpetuate themselves and resist change. They also create their own
realities through selffulfilling prophecies.
1. What are the 3 important features that define an act as aggressive?
o Aggression is an behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid harm
2. Be able to categorize an aggressive act as direct/indirect, violent/verbal/relational,
hostile/instrumental, and active/passive.
o Direct aggression: purposefully trying to hurt another person, physically hurting another person
o Indirect aggression: act in which the other person is not physically hurt
o Hostile aggression: aggression that springs from anger, goal is to injure.
o Instrumental aggression: aggression that aims to injure, but only as a means of some other end
3. Explain the frustrationaggression hypothesis (both old and revised). What does this
hypothesis not predict?
o Old frustrationaggression hypothesis: blocked goal results in frustration and anger, so to del with the anger a
person acts aggressively. Theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress.
o Revised Frustration aggression hypothesis: suggests that any unpleasant experience combined with
frustration, pain, and or heat will result in negative feeling and then lead to a reactive aggression.
• FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY IS TO EXPLAIN HOSTILE AGRESSION, NOT
4. What is the social learning theory of aggression? Know the Bobo doll study.
o Social learning theory: the theory that when we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being
rewarded and punished.
5. How does testosterone affect aggression? What was the measure for testosterone
exposure that we talked about in class and how does it work?
o There seems to be a direct positive correlation between testosterone and aggression.
6. Who is more aggressive males or females?
7. How do heat, pain, alcohol use, aggressive cues, and culture affect aggression?
o All cause aversive situations which result in heightened tensions. 8. What were the individuals differences discussed in class and how did they affect
o The length difference of the fore and ringfingers. They were said to increase aggression if one was longer
than the other.
9. Why did humans evolve an inclination to be aggressive? What was aggression’s function
in the past and how is it functional/dysfunctional today?
o Animalistic instincts
o Worrying over the future
o We are not aggressive just to be aggressive
10. What does your book say about all the different ways that violent video games can
increase aggression? (from the book)
o The games allow kids to identify with, and play the role of , a violent character; actively rehearse violence,
instead of passively watching it; engage in a whole sequence of enacting violence; are engaged with
continual violence; and are rewarded for violent acts.
o Violent video games can be more influential on aggressive behavior because it allows the person to be more