• Males and females are similar at conception
• Biological sex determined by chromosomes at 7 weeks (XY: males XX: females)
• Gender roles: a set of expectations that determine how males and females should act within
any given society
→ Vary by country
→ Vary across time
• Differences in
⇒ House, handclapping games for girls
⇒ Fighting, aggressive games for boys
⇒ Girls talk more about relationships and tell secrets than boys
Independence vs. Connectedness
• Family relations
• Traits associated with power tend to be associated with being male (aggressive)
• Women still make .77 to men’s $1 on average
• Boys are still told to “man up” and not cry Even though we see differences, there is more variation within the genders than there is between
• How we perceive others and events related to others
• Thinking about our behavior and other peoples behavior.
Attribution: an explanation why we or others engaged in a certain behavior
• Knowing why someone does something changes our behavior about them.
• Fritz Heider proposed a fundamental dichotomy for explaining behavior
→ Internal attributions: dispositional (e.g. he loves to dance)
→ External attributions: situational (e.g. it’s a dance party)
• Fundamental attribution error
→ Tendency to make dispositional attributions for others’ behavior, even when plausible
situational explanations exist
→ Dispositional: related to personality and internal traits
• ActorObserver bias:
→ Tendency to make internal attributions for others behaviors
→ “Jon kicked the dog because he’s an ass.”
→ Tendency to make external attributions for our own behaviors
→ “I kicked the dog because it had rabies and was about to bite me.”
• SelfServing bias
→ Taking credit for successes
→ Blaming other people/factors for failures
• Kelley’s covariation model (1967)
→ 3 types of relevant info. when explaining actions of others → Consistency
⇒ does the actor behave similarly in this situation on other occasions
⇒ does Claire always throw coffee in Joe’s face?
⇒ Yes = high consistency
⇒ If consistency is low, it is ambiguous and we can’t make any conclusions
⇒ Does the actor behave similarly In other situations?
⇒ Does Claire throw coffee in everyone’s faces or is it just Joe?
⇒ No = High distinctiveness
⇒ Do others behave similarly in that situation?
⇒ Do other people throw coffee in Joe’s face?
⇒ Yes = high consensus
• Overconfidence phenomenon: tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs (e.g.
→ People will typically try to confirm their theories but don’t try to disconfirm them
• Confirmation Bias: tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions
• Mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood o