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Social Psychology COMPLETE NOTES [Part 12] -- got 92% in the course

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SOP 3004
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Aggression  Aggression: any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid harm • Aggression is a behavior → Not an emotion (e.g., anger) → Not a thought (e.g., “I want to punch Tom Cruise in the face!’) • It’s intentional → Action is deliberate and they know it will hurt the victim • Victim wants to avoid harm; doesn’t want the behavior  Relational aggression: doing something to damage someone to harm someone’s reputation in some way; spreading rumors, etc.  Types of aggression • Direct → When the person is there → Mostly physical acts • Indirect → When the person is not there → Mostly emotional acts → Gossiping about someone → Exception- hiring a hit man, firing a missile • Hostile/Reactive → Passionate or “hot”; emotional reaction to something → Example: Hulk • Instrumental/Proactive → Cold aggression; not based off of emotions → Motivated by achieving some other means (money, power, status, etc.) → Example: hit man • Active → Taking an action to harm someone • Passive → Withholding an act/intentionally not doing something that results in the victim being harmed  Theories of Aggression • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis → Frustration triggers aggression ⇒ Harris (1974) • Confederate cut people in line (front vs. back) • C said nothing or said “Sorry, I’m in a hurry” • How much physical and verbal aggression was expressed by P? → People in the front of the line when cut without an explanation ⇒ Problems? • People could be frustrated without their goals being blocked • It has no explanation for instrumental aggression • Revision! → Any unpleasant experience now leads you to negative feelings, which may or may not lead you to aggression • Social learning theory → Bandura → We learn social behavior by: ⇒ Observing and imitating others ⇒ Being rewarded and punished → Children learn violent behavior by watching others be violent and be rewarded for violent behavior ⇒ Example: abused children are 4x more likely to abuse own children • Gender and testosterone → Males are more likely to be physically aggressive but females are more likely to be relationally aggressive → Young male syndrome: young males (particularly adolescents) take more risks and act more aggressively ⇒ High levels of testosterone ⇒ Tend to use direct aggression and it tends to be effective ⇒ We see that there’s no culture in which women commit more violent crimes than men • Why? It’s evolutionary; mating – it’s showing the women that you’re strong, protective, and you can “bring home the bacon”  Individual differences • Cultures of honor → Cultures in your reputation/honor/way you present yourself is very important → When you’re defended, you must retaliate in order to “regain your honor” → Can be due to being a herding culture → Middle eastern cultures/some Asian/here in the us: gangs, southern (confederate) culture • Narcissism → Extremely unreasonably high self-esteem; feel superior and very entitled → Seem to be super charming, until they are challenged
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