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Social Psychology COMPLETE NOTES [Part 15] -- got 92% in the course

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SOP 3004
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Prosocial Behavior  Prosocial behavior: Behavior that’s intended to benefit others  Do we help others? • Kitty Genovese – March 13, 1964 – Queens, NY – Knifed and raped → Attacked left twice and came back – 35 minutes before someone called the police • Jan. 13, 1982 – Jet crashes into Potomac River – a construction worker passing by jumped into freezing river to try to help  When do we help people? When don’t we? • Bystander Effect: → Tendency to be less likely to help as number of other bystanders increases; the more people there are to help you, the less likely you are to be helped • Darley and Latane → P’s sitting alone in cubicles talking on the phone to other people (either 1, 2, or 5 - confederate) about how they’re adjusting to college life ⇒ One person mentions during the conversation that he’s prone to seizures and he has a seizure; did they help? • Only witness: within a minute, about 80% of people help; within 3 minutes, 100% of the people get help • Two witnesses: within a minute, 60% of people help; within 5 minutes, 85% of the people get help • Four witnesses: within a minute, 30% of people help; within 5 minutes, 65% of the people get help • Darley and Latane’s model of Bystander Intervention → 1. Notice situation ⇒ Large number of bystanders may interfere with this → 2. Interpret as emergency ⇒ Pluralistic Ignorance: individual members of a group believe something, but mistakenly think everyone else in the group don’t believe it → 3. Assume responsibility ⇒ Diffusion of responsibility: The belief that others will take responsibility for helping a person in need → 4. Know what to do → 5. Judge that the benefits outweigh the costs ⇒ Helping only occurs after all 5 are true; it could break down at any time • Darley and Batson 1973 → Seminary students told to earn sermon and go across campus to deliver sermon ⇒ Some p’s told “plenty of time to get there” ⇒ Some p’s told “already late” ⇒ P’s came across person slumped over in a doorway. • Egoistic helping vs. altruistic helping → Egoistic helping: helping others for benefits to the self → Altruistic helping: helping others for no expected reasoning • Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis: → Empathy (taking perspective of person in need) can produce altruism ⇒ Empathy is NOT sympathy → Batson et al ⇒ Elaine (confederate) randomly assigned to receive shocks; P assigned to watch; manipulated the amount of empathy felt towards confederate ⇒ We show much more empathy to those who are similar to us (family – genetically similar; friends – similar as far as likes/interests) ⇒ Had Elaine fill out same survey as P; either very similar or not similar results; after the second trial, Elaine looks rough and the experimenter asks P if they’d switch; higher empathy (because they were similar) were more willing to help [more empathy leads to more altruistic behavior] • Aversive arousal hypothesis: → Seeing another person in distress is unpleasant, so we help to reduce our own unpleasant feelings ⇒ Ex. – A classmate is giving a speech and it’s very painful for you to watch so you think “Oh gosh, someone make it stop” → Batson et al. ⇒ Manipulated empathy; Elaine ⇒ Man
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