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Social Psychology COMPLETE NOTES [Part 16] -- got 92% in the course

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SOP 3004
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Attraction and Close relationships  Finding a partner • Propinquity effect: tendency for people to form friendships or romantic relationships with those they encounter often • Segal (1974) → Police trainee’s assigned seats and dorms based on last name; who were they closest with after 6 weeks? → Mere exposure ⇒ Moreland and Beach • 4 women enrolled in class; each showed up different number of times (0, 5, 10, 15) • How attractive are they? How similar to you are they? [they were all about the same level of attractiveness] → Those who came to class the most were the most attractive and the most similar • Similarity → Behavior ⇒ We liked people who mimic our behavior and we nonconsciously mimic the behavior of those that we like → Personality ⇒ “You like House! I like House! We should date!” ⇒ When you first meet, you don’t talk about differences, you talk about things you have in common → Physical characteristics ⇒ Matching hypothesis: everyone wants attractive partners but you’re limited by your own physical attractiveness; your partner will probably be at the same level of physical attractiveness ⇒ Symmetry ⇒ Averageness – indicator that you have normal, healthy genes; no outliers ⇒ Gender differences • Women → Waist-to-hip ratio – child bearing → Youth • Men → Masculinity: square jaw, prominent chin, heavier eyebrows, thinner lips • How important is attractiveness? → Li et al ⇒ Design your ideal mate with 20 mate dollars a. Given 10 different characteristics and traits i. Physical attractiveness, yearly income, intelligence, kindness, creativity, sense of humor, etc. b. Each mate dollar corresponded to 10 percentile increase in that trait  Men prioritize attractiveness; women prioritize status/wealth  What is a relationship? • A relationship is characterized by interdependence – when my behaviors affect your outcomes and your behaviors affect my outcomes • A close relationship is one of strong, frequent, and diverse interdependence that lasts over a considerable period of time  How successful are close relationships? • 40-50% of all first marriages end in divorce or permanent separation • The divorce rate for second marriages is even higher (75%) • When do marriages end? → Mode= between 2-3 years • Trajectory of relationship satisfaction hasn’t changed much over time → Couples start moderately satisfied → Satisfaction slowly increases, peaking around marriage → Decline after marriage • Although couples differ in how much and how fast satisfaction increases or decreases, most couples follow this pattern  Attachment • Bowlby → Believed that childhood attachment predicted adult relationships (secure, avoidant, ambivalent/anxious) • Shaver → Identified attachment styles to describe adult relationship (child attachment is not necessarily attached to adult) → Two dimensions ⇒ Anxiety: extent to which insecure about the availability and responsiveness of romantic partners ⇒ Avoidance: extent to which uncomfortable being close to others → Four styles ⇒ Secure
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