DEP-3103 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Neural Development, Phonological Development, Twin

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18 Jan 2016
Child Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 6: Cognitive Development
1) Know the key terms introduced in the beginning of the chapter, e.g., the
difference between assimilation and accommodation
a. Cognition: Inner processes & products of the mind that lead to “knowing.” It
includes all mental activity (e.g., attending, remembering, symbolizing,
categorizing, planning, reasoning, problem solving, creating, and fantasizing)
b. Schemes: organized ways of making sense of experience
c. Adaptation: building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
Assimilation: Use current schemes to interpret world
Accommodation: New schemes to interpret world
d. Equilibration : movement between equilibrium (assimilate more) and
disequilibrium (accommodate more)
2) Sensorimotor stage: know the key terms; you don’t need to know the specifics
of the sensorimotor substages (e.g., as listed in Table 6.1 and the lecture/text);
Know the follow-up research section, but concentrate on key terms as well as
the experiments I went over in class. You don’t need to know the milestones
table. Don’t worry about the “evaluation of preoperational stage” section
a. First stage in Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
b. Birth2 years
c. Build schemes, or “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, etc.
d. Can’t yet carry out many activities mentally
Instead, they do circular reactions
Circular reactions involve scrambling into a new experience caused
by a baby’s own motor activity. The reaction is circular because, as
the infant tries to repeat the even again, a sensorimotor response
that originally occurred accidentally strengthens into a new scheme
Circular reactions start out in the infants own body, but then turns
outward onto the manipulation of objects
e. Intentional behavior
8-12 months
Object Permanence = Understanding that objects continue to exist
even when out of sight
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Retrieve hidden objects
Incomplete at first: A-not-B search error
Still search for it at the first hiding place
Awareness not complete
f. Violation-of-Expectation Method
Tests the understanding of object permanence
When infants were shown an expected event, they did not stare at
the even as long as they did when the event was unexpected
They would habituate to the expected event, but recover to the
unexpected event
Infants were maybe surprised?
Maybe aware of aspect of the physical world
g. Mental Representation (18mons - 2yrs)
Mental representation begin at about 18 months
Mental Representations: Internal, mental depictions of information
Images: objects, people, places
Concepts: categories
Can manipulate with mind
Deferred imitation
Make-believe play
h. Development of Categorization
Categorization helps infants make sense of experience
-More manageable Reduces amount of new
information constantly encountered
Habituation and recovery research
-6-12-month-olds organize objects into meaningful
i. E.g., food items, furniture, birds,
ii. < 6 months= perceptual
iii. >6 months= conceptual
-When infants were shown multiple pictures belonging
to the same category, they would become habituated.
When shown a picture that does not belong, they
would recover and stare longer
3) Preoperational stage: know the key terms; know the features of this stage,
including the limitations of cognitive thinking hallmarked by this stage (e.g.,
egocentric thinking); don’t worry about the “evaluation of preoperational
stage” section
a. The Preoperational Stage & Mental Representation
2 to 7 years
Big increase in mental representation, or symbolic, activity
Most obvious change from sensorimotor
Language most flexible means
Characteristics (what they can do):
Make-believe play
-Imaginary friends
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-From scribbles to actual pictures
Dual representation
-Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own
right and a symbol
Language develops
b. Limitations of Preoperational Thought
Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot,
rather than can, understand
Cannot perform mental operations
Operations = mental representations of actions that obey
logical rules.
Egocentrism and animistic thinking
Egocentrism: Failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints
from one’s own
--Three mountains problem, children didn’t realize that
the person sitting on the other side of the mountains
saw a different picture
Animistic: Tendency to attribute thoughts, feelings, and
emotions to inanimate objects
-Usually use motion as a cue to something being “alive”
Cannot conserve
Conservation: Certain physical characteristics of objects
remain the same, even when their outward appearance
-2 glasses with the same amount of juice. One is
poured into a tall, skinny glass. Child doesn’t
understand that it is still the same amount
Centration: Focusing on one aspect of a situation, neglecting
other important features
Irreversibility: Can’t mentally reverse steps
Lack hierarchical classification
Piaget’s class inclusion problem
Unable to understand that there are “more flowers” than “blue
4) Concrete Operational: know key terms, including the accomplishments (what
children can do) and limitations of this stage
a. Concrete Operational Stage
7 to 11 years
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