BISC 1404 Midterm: Unit 2 Guiding Questions and Answers Chapters Chapters 32-34, 40-43

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Biological Sciences
BISC 1404

Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity Defining Animals • What are the three groups of characteristics that combine to define animals, and how are animals defined based on these characteristics? • Nutritional Mode- heterotrophic or ingestion • Cell Structure and Specialization- eukaryotic, no cell walls, multicellular, composed of tissues (except sponges) • Reproduction and Development- most sexually, diploid stage usually dominant, most life cycles involve larval stage Evolution of Animals • What is known about the last common ancestor of animals? What are choanoflagellates? • Choanoflagellates- similar to collar cells in sponges, similar to protists. • have similar cadherin proteins like in animals Animal “Body Plans” • Define the following: radial vs. bilateral symmetry, diploblastic vs. triploblastic, spiral vs. radial cleavage, determinate vs. indeterminate cleavage, acoelomate vs. pseudocoelomate vs. coelomate • Radial Symmetry- top and bottom, no left or right sides. kinda like cutting a pie. • Bilateral Symmetry- only one plane can divide the organism in half, like a mirror • Diploblastic- having a body derived from only two embryonic cell layers (ectoderm and endoderm, but no mesoderm) • Triploblastic- have a body derived from three embryonic layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm • Spiral Cleavage- four embryonic cells undergo mitosis oblique to the body axis. • Radial cleavage- the four embryonic cells undergo mitosis parallel and perpendicular to the body axis • What are developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes? • Protostomes- have spiral and determinate cleavage. solid masses of mesoderm split and form the coelom. the blastopore becomes the mouth, so mouth develops first • Deuterostomes- have radial cleavage that is indeterminate. the folds of the archenteron form the coelom. the blastopore becomes the anus, anus develops first. • What are the 5 main points reflected in figure 32.11? What can you tell from this phylogeny? • 1) All animals share a common ancestor • 2) Sponges are basal animals • 3) Eumetazoa are animals with true tissues • 4) Most animal phyla belong to the Bilateria clade • 5) There are three major clades of Bilaterian animals. • Deuterostomia, Lophotrochazoa, and Ecdysozoa. • All are invertebrates except for chordata in Deuterostomia • What is the difference between ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans? • Ecdysozoans molt exoskeletons or cuticles whereas lophotrochozoans do not. Chapter 33: An Introduction to Invertebrates Invertebrate Diversity • Information that you will be tested on from this chapter comes from Figure 33.UN08 Summary of key concepts: animal groups • Based on this figure, you need to be able to answer the following questions: • What are the major groups of invertebrates? • Porifera, Cnideria, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Annelida, Nemotoda, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, cephalochordata, urochordata • What are some representatives of each group? • Sponges, hydras, planarians, clams, segmented worms, roundworms, crayfish, starfish, lancelets, tunicates • Which characteristics define each group? • Porifera- lack true tissues, have choanocytes • Cnideria- radial symmetry, diploblastic, gastrovascular cavity, have nematocytes • Platyhelminthes- acoelomates, bilateral symmetry, gastrovascular cavity • Mollusca- coelomates, have foot, mantle, visceral mass, have hard shell made of CaCO3 • Annelida- have metameres • Nemotoda- have cuticle to molt, pseudocoelomates, no circulatory system • Arthropoda- Have exoskeletons made of protein and chitin, jointed appendages • Echinodermata- endoskeleton, bilateral larvae, 5 part body organization, water vascular system • Cephalochordata (lancelets)- basal chordates, marine suspension feeders • Urochordata (tunicates)- marine suspension feeders, larvae display the 4 key features of a chordate • Which feeding, body plan, physiological, and behavioral adaptations are shown by each group? Chapter 34: The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates Vertebrate Diversity • Information that you will be tested on from this chapter comes from Figure 34.UN11 Summary of key concepts: clade descriptions • Based on this figure, you need to be able to answer the following questions: • What are the major groups of vertebrates? • What are some representatives of each group? • Which characteristics define each group? • Myxini (hagfishes)- jawless marine vertebrates with reduced vertebrae, have head that includes a skull and brain, eyes, and other sensory organs • Petromyzontida (lampreys)- jawless aquatic vertebrates with reduced vertebrae, typically feed by attaching to live fish and ingesting their blood. • Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays,skates, ratfishes)- aquatic gnathostomes, have cartilaginous skeleton formed by the reduction of an ancestral mineralized skeleton • Actinopterygii (ray- finned fish)- aquatic gnathostomes, have bony skeleton and maneuverable fins supported by rays. • Dipnoi (lungfishes)- freshwater lobe-fins with both lungs and gills, sister group of tetrapods • Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, caecilians)- have four limbs descended from modern fins, most have moist skin that functions in gas exchange, live in water as larvae and on land as adults • Reptilia (snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles, birds)- one of two groups of living amniotes, have amniotic eggs and rib cage ventilation, key adaptation for life on land • Mammalia (monotremes, marsupials, eutherians)- evolved from synapsid ancestors, include egg laying monotremes (platypus and echidnas); pouched marsupials, and eutherians (placental mammals) • Which feeding, body plan, physiological, and behavioral adaptations are shown by each group? Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Relationship Between Structure and Function in Animals • What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? • Anatomy- the structure of an organism • Physiology- processes and functions of an organism • How has convergent evolution led to similarities in animal body plans? • Convergent Evolution- different animals experiencing same selective pressures lead to similar adaptations (seal, penguin, tuna are all fast swimmers) • How do animals exchange nutrients, waste products, and gasses with their environment? What is the difference between direct and internal exchange? • Direct Exchange- every cell is in contact and exchanging with the environment • Internal Exchange (indirect)- complex animals have systems that branch or fold into internal compartments to increase SA ex. body systems • What are the different types of mammal tissues (you only need to know the four types, not the specific cells/specialized components of each tissue type)? Where is each tissue type found? • Epithelial Tissue- closely packed cells, functions in lining, protecting, secreting, and absorbing ex. linings of systems, skin • Connective Tissue- binds tissues, ex. bone, blood, cartilage, fat • Muscle Tissue- densely packed cells, length > width, contracts and relaxes • Nervous Tissue- receives stimuli, and conducts impulses ex brains, spinal cord • What are different ways that activities within an animal’s body are coordinated and controlled? • Hormones- in endocrine system cells release small amounts of hormones that travel to target cells to elicit a response • Electrical Impulses- cell signalling in neurons, very fast response Feedback Control and Homeostasis • What is the difference between a regulator and a conformer? • Regulator- uses homeostatic mechanisms to control internal environments (warm blooded) • Conformer- conforms to outside environment to deal with conditions (cold blooded) • What is homeostasis? • Homeostasis- “steady state” physiological condition of the body, the maintenance of internal balance, always has relatively constant internal temp despite outside environment Homeostasis and Thermoregulation • What is thermoregulations? • Thermoregulation- process by which animals maintain their body temperature within a normal range. • What is the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm? A poikilotherm and a homeotherm? • Endotherm- heat is produced internally by metabolic processes • Ectoderm- heat is provided by outside environment • Homeotherm- relatively constant body temperature • Poikilotherm- body temp varies with environment *endotherm = homeotherm and ectotherm = poikilotherm* • How do organisms exchange heat with their environments? • Radiation- absorbing heat from electromagnetic waves, sunlight • Evaporation- like sweating, cooling off • Conduction- direct transfer of molecule motion from surface, sitting on a rock • Convection- transfer by air or liquid, like wind or water • What are some insulation, circulatory, evaporative, behavioral, and other adaptations to balancing heat loss and gain? • Insulation- blubber on a walrus • Circulatory- countercurrent heat exchange in dolphin flipper • Evaporative- sweating • Behavioral- lifting butt up in dragonfly to be warmer • other- snake contracting to keep eggs warm, preflight warm up Energy Requirements • What is bioenergetics? • Bioenergetics- the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms. • How can you quantify energy use? What is metabolic rate? What is the difference between BMR and SMR? • Metabolic Rate- sum of all energy an animal uses vs time • BMR- the minimum rate for endotherms fasting, not stressed, and at rest or the comfortable temp for ectotherms • SMR- same for endotherms as BMR but for ectotherms it’s the metabolic rate at a specific temperature • How do size and activity affect metabolic rate? • BMR increases with body size and activity • What are torpor and hibernation, and how are they adaptive? • Topor- physiological state of decreased activity and metabolism • Hibernation- long term topor with periodic arousals, disrupts circadian clock to be equal day and night energy use. • adaptive for animals who can’t find food certain times of the year and need to save energy Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Animal Diets • What is nutrition? • Nutrition- the process by which an animal takes in and uses food • What are the three nutritional needs that must be met by an animal’s diet? • 1) Chemical energy to produce ATP • 2)
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