[HIST 1100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (142 pages long)

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Fordham
HIST 1100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Mercantilism, British Efforts to Create an Administrative Structure for Empire Post 1763
Mercantilism was used by the British in a desperate attempt to gain full control over
the colonies economically.
Meratilists elieed that ealth as poer. The also elieed that a outr’s
economic wealth, along with its military and political power, could be measured by
the amount of gold or silver in its treasury.
In order to maintain wealth, there was to be more exporting of goods than
importing.
Having control over colonies would act as a great advantage, as the colonies would
provide raw materials to the mother country, thereby reducing the need for foreign
imports. This provided a guaranteed market for exports as well.
American colonists were seen as being tenants by the English government. Colonists
were expected to furnish products that were needed in the mother country, such as
toao, sugar, ad ships’ asts. Iported aufatured goods ould ol e
bought from Britain.
Self sufficiency was not an idea that the English supported. They opposed the idea
and believed that the colonies existed to provide for the mother country.
In order to create a sense of an administrative structure, English Parliament passed
laws in order to regulate the mercantilist system. The Navigation Law of 1650 was
the first of these laws.
This law was aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to make their way into the
American trading system. Following this, all commerce flowing to and from the
colonies could only be transported by British vessels.
Following this, laws required that European goods that were being sent to America
had to be landed in Britain first so that tariffs could be collected.
Parliament prohibited the colonial legislatures from printing paper currency and
from passing indulgent bankruptcy laws, as these actions would hurt British
merchants.
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The British crown was also granted the right to nullify any legislation passed by the
colonial assemblies if such laws worked against the mercantilist system.
The Stamp Act, Sugar Act of 1764, and the Quartering Act are among some of the
acts and laws passed by Parliament to impose a strong and very powerfully tight grip
on the colonies economically and politically.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Britain & Colonies as Rev. War Began
The British had found themselves to possessing both advantaged and disadvantages
as the American Revolutionary War began. As for advantages, they had a large and
well army.
This granted them power over the colonists in certain aspects.
The political and economic power that Britain had was also to their advantage, as
they were providing the colonies with manufactured goods, some of which were
crucially needed by the colonies.
Their disadvantages included the fact that they were on land they were not as
familiar with as the colonists were. America was still uncharted territory for the eyes
of many English soldiers, which would make battling even more difficult for them.
Colonists had their share of advantages and disadvantages as well. As an advantage,
the colonies had the French to help them. This acted as an asset to the colonies
during this time.
The colonies used guerilla warfare tactics to aide them in battles. Their knowledge of
the land they lived on made this process of warfare easier for the colonists.
The colonies were also led by many outstanding generals, such as Thomas Sumter,
Benedict Arnold, Horatio Gates, George Washington, and Francis Marion. One major
disadvantage that the colonies faced was the lack of a large army, which the British
had. Because of this, civilians had to fight, leaving more civilians as casualties of the
American Revolutionary War.
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