HIST 1400- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 36 pages long!)

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Published on 12 Oct 2017
School
Fordham University
Department
History
Course
HIST 1400
Professor
Fordham
HIST 1400
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Liberation Theology
1960s~1980s: Global New Left / C.American Wars / Military
Dictatorships
Gustavo Gutierrez, Theology of Liberation (1971)
Christ on Earth
Clergy take up struggle for equality and right for the poor
Support social change
Marxist socialist ideology & radical grass-roots Catholic theory and
practice
Moral & spiritual influence on guerrilla movements
The Church in LA Society
Had defenders of human dignity
-Bartolomé de las Casas
-Fathers Hidalgo and Morelos (Mexico)
But generally, not side with poor; allied with elite
Oppose social reforms
Did not oppose African slavery
Charitable work
Extremely wealthy
Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), 1962
First Ecumenical Council in 400 years
Pope John XXIII
Bring Church doctrine more in line w modern social conditions
New direction: Attend to needs of poor & oppressed
NOT embrace socialist principles
Create opening for “working clergy”
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Padre Camilo Torres (Colombia)
Born into aristocratic family
Precursor to Liberation Theology
Join communist guerrillas (Natl Liberation Army of Colombia) but
consider himself Catholic, not communist
Saw guerrillas as only group addressing social problems
Killed 1966 in battle w Colombian military
1967 Papal Encyclical: Populorum Progressio
1967: Pope Paul VI’s encyclical — “On the Development of
Peoples”
Draw attention to present hunger, suffering poverty
Invoke Dignity
Echo Dependency Theory
1968 Medellín (Colombia) Conference
1968: Radical shift in Catholic Church
“Preferential Option for the Poor”: Must become Church of the poor
Break with class-less theology of Church
Organize Christian Base Communities (CEBs)
-Scripture as guide for social change
-Could include both teachings of Christ and Socialism
Archbishop Oscar Romero (1917~1980)
Installed 1977 in El Salvador
“Be Patriotic, kill a Priest”: Climate of extreme violence ag. Clergy
Transformed by violence
Radio sermons
1980 Urge soldiers to stop violence
Murdered next day — 3/24/80
Military massacre funeral attendees
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Document Summary

Liberation theology: 1960s~1980s: global new left / c. american wars / military. The church in la society: had defenders of human dignity. Fathers hidalgo and morelos (mexico: but generally, not side with poor; allied with elite, oppose social reforms, did not oppose african slavery, charitable work, extremely wealthy. 1967 papal encyclical: populorum progressio: 1967: pope paul vi"s encyclical on the development of. Peoples : draw attention to present hunger, suffering poverty, invoke dignity, echo dependency theory. Preferential option for the poor : must become church of the poor: 1968: radical shift in catholic church, break with class-less theology of church, organize christian base communities (cebs) Could include both teachings of christ and socialism. Be patriotic, kill a priest : climate of extreme violence ag. Clergy: transformed by violence, radio sermons, 1980 urge soldiers to stop violence, murdered next day 3/24/80, military massacre funeral attendees. 80% of population landless: us aid. = million / day to ght guerrillas: 1980-92: over 80k killed.

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