HIST 1400 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Simple Verses, Print Culture
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Race and Nation
○ Original version attributed to Joseito Fernandez (1929)
○ Jose Marti’s poem “Versos Sencillos” (1891) used as lyrics
○ A “regional” song expressing Cuban pride
■ Poetry and pride
● National identity and Nationalism emerge in historically specific contexts
● National identities are constructed in racial and gendered terms
● Definitions of race are shaped by processes of nation building
Jose Marti, “Our America” (1891) and ‘Racelessness’
● Context: Leading up to final Cuban War of Independence (1895-98) / Export Boom
● Call for Latin American pride in its own heritage
● Address both Cuban independence and greater Latin American unity against threat of
Spain and US
● Idea of RACELESSNESS as Cuban identity:
○ “There is no racial hatred, because there are no races”
● National ID and Nationalism are historically specific
Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of
● Idea of “Nation” as historical construct
○ Involved in the late 18th century, yet appear ancient
● Nations = imagined political communities
● Latin America: Creoles develop ideas of “nation” before most of Europe
● Problems of his theory
○ Narrow focus on print culture, i.e. newspapers (only available to elite)
○ Nationhood still incipient in early 19th century; more of a “nativism” or creole
Elite Visions of Race & Nation
● The Liberal idea of a citizen
○ Unmarked, raceless, genderless?
○ Implicity white, male
○ Embrace colonial hierarchies, including those of caste, over citizenship
Domingo Sarmiento: FACUNDO, or Civilization & Barbarism (1845)
● What, in his view, is Argentina’s struggle of Civilization v. Barbarism?
● What path, in his view, should Argentina follow?
● How does race shape his ideas?
○ European v native
● Gender: what is the importance of the gaucho
Original version attributed to joseito fernandez (1929) Jose marti"s poem versos sencillos (1891) used as lyrics. National identity and nationalism emerge in historically specific contexts. National identities are constructed in racial and gendered terms. Definitions of race are shaped by processes of nation building. Context: leading up to final cuban war of independence (1895-98) / export boom. Call for latin american pride in its own heritage. Address both cuban independence and greater latin american unity against threat of. There is no racial hatred, because there are no races . National id and nationalism are historically specific. Benedict anderson, imagined communities: reflections on the origins and spread of. Involved in the late 18th century, yet appear ancient. Latin america: creoles develop ideas of nation before most of europe. Narrow focus on print culture, i. e. newspapers (only available to elite) Nationhood still incipient in early 19th century; more of a nativism or creole identity.