HIST 1400 Study Guide - Final Guide: Monroe Doctrine, Siege Mentality, Mothers Of The Plaza De Mayo

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Published on 8 Jul 2016
School
Fordham University
Department
History
Course
HIST 1400
Professor
HIST 1400
10/19/15
Mexican Revolution
Significances of the Mexican Revolution
-1st modern social revolution of the 20th century
-Far-reaching from countryside and spreads to urban areas
-Lasing repercussions
-1917 Constitution
-Create PRI (Revolutionary Industrial Party)
-Revolutionary Nationalism (Indigenismo)
-Land reform
Causes of Mexican Revolution (multiple causes socially, politically, economically)
-Limits of 19th century liberalism
-Indigenous people lose lands to latifundia
-Peasants: Objection to expropriation
-1900: Over 77% of population lived in countryside
-Originally election-related
-Try to prevent Porfirio Diaz from stealing another election
Periodizing the Revolution
-Began in 1910 with overthrow of Porfirio Diaz
-1917: Constitution
-1940: End of Cardenas presidency
-1968: End of Mexican miracle (Massacre of Tlatelolco Square)
Revolution Background
-19th century political instability
-1855-58: La Reforma
-1858-60: Civil War
-1862-67: French Invasion
-Benito Juarez
-Liberal president in 1867; Conservatives crushed
-Liberals consolidate modern state
Porfiriato (1876-1910)
-Porfirio Diaz
-President for total of 34 years
-Pan y Palo (Carrot and Stick) Policy
-Export-Oriented Economy
-Massive expropriation of peasant lands
-Latifundia growth
-"Positivist" or "Scientific" governance
Challenges to Diaz
-PLM (Mexican Liberal Policy)
-Bourgeoisie
-Many urban elites
-Rural laborers, landless indigenous peasants, labor unions had major strikes
Constitutional Opposition
-1908: Creelman Interview
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-1909: Madero runs for President against Diaz as PLM candidate
-More political rights
-Modern concessions to peasants/workers
-November 20, 1910: Plan of S. Luis Potosi officially begins Mexican Revolution
-1910: Diaz overthrown
-Official beginning of Mexican Revolution
-1911-13: Madero Presidency
Emilio Zapata & Pancho Villa
-Join Constitutionalists at first (Madero, then Carranza & Obregon)
-Villa (from Chihuahua in North of Mexico)
-Social-bandit (revolutionary)
-Strong landless peasant following in North
-Zapata (from Morelos in South of Mexico)
-Lead indigenous and mestizo farmers
-Agrarian/Peasant Radicalism
-1911: Plan de Ayala
-EJIDOS: Communal lands
-Calls for Madero's removal
Who Participated?
-Rancheros
-Migrant laborers
-Peasants
-Urban workers
-Soldaderos
-Women (soldier = female participant in Revolution)
Constitution of 1917
-Article 3 = Education
-Government is responsible for educating people
-Free/secular education for all
-Article 27 = Agrarian Reform
-Nationalize all lands/water
-Private property is a privilege, not a right
-Article 123 = Labor legislation
-8 hour workday/minimum wage
-Employee housing, medical care, education
-Right to strike/organize
-Discrimination outlawed
-Hard to enforce?
-President Carranza (1917) said "I obey, but do not comply"
Revolutionary Violence/Protest
-Many leaders killed each other
-Many peasants lives still difficult
-Obregon killed Villa & Carranza and Carranza killed Zapata
Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940)
-Realize many goals of Revolution (FDR-like figure)
-Chart independent course for Mexico
-1934: Agrarian Code
-1938: Nationalize oil, education reform, beginning of RPI (doesn’t promote women's rights)
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Revolutionary Nationalism
-Diego Rivera
-Indigenismo
-Education and Indigenous Policy
-"Tarahumara Race"
Indigenismo
-Promoted by Mexican Revolution Government
-Contributions of Indian traditions to Mexican national culture
10/22/15
Populism: Vargas, Peron, and the Working Class
LA Populist Leaders
-Vargas (Brazil)
-Peron (Argentina)
-Cardenas (Mexico)
-Gaitan (Colombia)
Labor Movements
-Socialism, anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism
-1919: Rise of socialism on world stage
-By late 1920s, Communist Party forms in every LA nation
-Trade unions
-Expansion of industrial working class
-Labor activism leads to repression
Great Depression and ISI
-Great Depression
-Heavy blow to export-oriented LA economies
-LA nations turn to Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)
-Domestic light industry
-Uneven success throughout LA
What is Populism?
-Emerges from activist working class, socialist, and social democratic mass movements
-Emerges in 1930s in LA
-Mostly urban
-Promotes social and industrial development
-Rely on mass base forged in struggle for workers' rights
-Often associated with fascism, but isn't the same
-Can move left or right
-Us vs. Them discourse
-State as patronage machine
-No fundamental critique of capitalism
-Steeped in language of paternalism
-Estado Papi
Getalio Vargas and Estado Novo
-President in "Revolution of 1930"
-Auto-Coup in 1937 (against himself)
-Becomes dictator
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