PSYC 1100 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Punnett Square, Behavioral Neuroscience, Dna Replication

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Fordham
PSYC 1100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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January 17, 2017
Lecture 1: What is Biopsychology?
What is Biopsychology?
Biopsychology is the study of biological or physiological basis of behavior
Why Study the Brain and
Behavior?
- Much of our behavior can be explained through the biological roots
- That said, how the brain produces behavior is a major source of unanswered questions
- The brain is the most complex living organ on Earth
- A growing list of behavioral disorders can be explained and treated as we increase our
understanding of the human brain
- Many aspects of behavior we can only understand through biological evidence
We will study the biological basis of behavior
- Genetics and epigenetics
- Structure of the nervous system
- Structure & function of cells in the nervous system
- Neurotransmitters & psychopharmacology
- Methods of biological research
So, what is Behavior?
- The way in which one acts or conducts oneself especially towards others
- The way in which an animal or person acts in response to a particular situation or
stimulus
- The mental activity and thoughts of an individual
- We will study it with respect to:
Sensation and perception
Sleep and biological rhythms
Reproductive behavior
Ingestive behavior
Learning, memory and attention
Human communication
Emotion
Neurological and psychological disorders
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Goals of Biopsychology
- Generalization Scientific Explanation: a general conclusion based on many
observations of similar phenomena
- e.g. general laws like classical conditioning
- If we couldn’t generalize our experiments would have very little scope
- Reduction Scientific Explanation: a phenomena is described in terms of the more
elementary processes that underlie it
- e.g. the synapse of activity that makes you move your hand from a hot stove
- Biopsychologists must do both
Historical Perspective on the Relationship of Brain-Behavior
Aristotle:
- Believed that the heart was the seat of behavior
- Noted the importance of the brain … but it was for cooling the blood
Galen (A.D. 130-200):
- Aristotle’s role for the brain is “utterly absurd, since in that case Nature would not have
placed the encephalon [brain] so far from the heart … And she would not have attached
the sources of all senses to it”
Descartes:
- Dualism: mind and body separate but interactive
- Some actions did not require the mind
- Through the pineal gland the “soul”
- Hydraulic Model Brain Function:
Pressurized fluid in the ventricles modulating the pineal gland
When the mind decides to perform an action, it tilts the pineal body like a
joystick, causing pressurized fluid to flow from the brain to the nerves
- First to apply a model to brain behavior functioning and could be tested!
Testing the existence of nerves, i.e. experimental psychology
- Galvani: electrical stimulation of nerves in muscles
- Muller: doctrine of nerve energies
- Nerves carry an electrical impulse
- Different nerves carry different information
- Fritsch & Hitzig: electrical stimulation of the brain
- Helmholtz: measured speed of conduction through nerves
- Which was much slower than expected more than just wires
Nerves work via electricity! But, are not like electrical wires, have their electrical properties!
Localization:
- Flourens: experimental ablation
- Broca: brains damaged by strokes
- Phineas Gage
- Gall: phrenology
- Wrong about bumps and traits
- (sort of) right about localization
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