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PSYC 3100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Vagal Tone, Parasympathetic Nervous System, Sympathetic Nervous System

Course Code
PSYC 3100
Study Guide

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Health Psychology Study Guide
Midterm Exam 22 February 2018
Chapter 1: Health Psychology as a Whole
What is health psychology?
Study of psychological, behavioral, and social processes in health, illness, and
Health a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity
Wellness use to describe full health
History: supernatural to biomedical (illness is explained by bodily processes) to
psychosomatic (caused by emotional conflict) to biopsychosocial model
What is health?
Biopsychosocial model- health and illness are consequences of the interplay of bio,
psycho, and social factors
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
o Microsystem family, school, peers
o Mesosystem how each of the microsystems interact with one another
o Exosystem economic system, political system, education system
o Macrosystem overarching beliefs and values
The Rise of Health Psychology
Changing pattern of illness
o Acute (e.g., tuberculosis, pneumonia, other infectious diseases)
Usually one cause
Diagnosis is commonly accurate
Cure is common
o Chronic (e.g., heart disease, cancer, diabetes)
Many causes
Diagnosis can be often uncertain
Cure is rare (management)
Advances in technology and research
o Expanded healthcare services ($3 trillion annual on health care in US)
Policy (e.g., ACA)
o Health psych perspective
Health care satisfaction
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Train health care employees
Working across disciplines
o Epidemiology (study of frequency of disease) and health psychology
Morbidity number of cases of a disease that exist at a certain time
Incidence number of new cases
Prevalence total number of existing cases
Mortality number of deaths due to particular causes
o Medicine and health psychology
Employed in health care settings
Develop behavioral interventions
Behavioral science in middle school curricula
Health Psychology Research
Theory-driven or practical problems
Independent vs. dependent variables
o Confounding variable
Research designs
o Experimental vs. correlational
o Prospective vs. retrospective
o Cross sectional vs. longitudinal
o Longitudinal sequential design
Research methods
o Survey/self report
o Naturalistic observation
o Clinical/case study
o Qualitative research
o Experiments
o Meta-analysis results of multiple studies
Evaluating research methods
o Reliability
o Validity
Careers in Health Psychology
Clinical health psychologist
Allied health professional fields
o Social work
o Occupational therapy
o Physical therapy
o Dietetics
Public health
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Chapter 2: Genetics & Systems of the Body: A Primer
Human genome
Composed of 46 chromosomes (22 of autosomal and two sex determining X/Y
chromosomes) with approximately 3 billion base pairs and 20,500 genes
Different forms of the same gene
Genotype: physical genetic makeup
Phenotype: how a gene is expressed through human features
Polygenic traits
Behavioral genetics
Used to examine the influence of nature and nurture on psychological traits
Allows us to estimate the heritability of traits and diseases
o To what extent do genes contribute to variability (i.e., differences) in a trait
among individuals?
o Family studies relatives vary in genotype and phenotype similarity
o Twin studies MZ and DZ twins may share similar environmental
experiences but have different genetic overlap
o Adoption studies children have different genes from adopted family but
same environment
The study of trait variations that results from external or environmental factors that
switch genes on/off and affect how cells express genes
Histone modification (coiled/uncoiled)
Systems of the Body
The Nervous System
Central nervous system
o Brain
o Spinal cord connects brain and PNS
Peripheral nervous system carries messages to and from the CNS
o Somatic nervous system controls volutnaty muscles and transmits sensory
information to the CNS
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