[BIOL 103] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (43 pages long)

98 views43 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

Georgetown
BIOL 103
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1
Atoms and Elements
Atom- basic unit of matter, composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Proton-- positively charged, nucleus, # of protons determines identity of atom
Neutronno electrical charge, nucleus
Electron-- negative charge, around nucleus
Atomic number = # of protons
Atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons
Element- contains only one type of atom, smallest unit that can not be broken down any further
by the methods of chemistry
We know about 118 elements.
Isotope- atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (atomic mass)
Ions- electrically charged atoms (protons =/= electrons)
Isomers- molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures
Orbital- region where an electron is present most of the time; the maximum number of electrons
in an orbital is 2
Shell- energy level containing orbitals
Molecules tend to be most stable when they share enough electrons to fill the outer shell.
Organic molecule- carbon based molecule
We only care about a few elements -> carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and
sulfur.
Periodic table:
Row indicates # or orbitals
Column indicates # of valence electrons (electrons in outside orbitals)
Molecule- substance made up of one or more atoms, held together with a chemical bond.
Chemical bondform of attraction between atoms that holds them together; sharing of electrons
The number and type of bonds are important.
The number of bonds an atom can form is determined by its valence electrons.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Important elements form the following numbers of bonds:
Carbon = 4
Nitrogen = 3
Oxygen = 2
Phosphorous = 5
Hydrogen = 1
Sulfur = 2 or 6
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class