[BIOL 103] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 43 pages long Study Guide!

185 views43 pages
Published on 29 Mar 2017
School
Georgetown University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL-103
Georgetown
BIOL 103
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1
Atoms and Elements
Atom- basic unit of matter, composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Proton-- positively charged, nucleus, # of protons determines identity of atom
Neutronno electrical charge, nucleus
Electron-- negative charge, around nucleus
Atomic number = # of protons
Atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons
Element- contains only one type of atom, smallest unit that can not be broken down any further
by the methods of chemistry
We know about 118 elements.
Isotope- atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (atomic mass)
Ions- electrically charged atoms (protons =/= electrons)
Isomers- molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures
Orbital- region where an electron is present most of the time; the maximum number of electrons
in an orbital is 2
Shell- energy level containing orbitals
Molecules tend to be most stable when they share enough electrons to fill the outer shell.
Organic molecule- carbon based molecule
We only care about a few elements -> carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and
sulfur.
Periodic table:
Row indicates # or orbitals
Column indicates # of valence electrons (electrons in outside orbitals)
Molecule- substance made up of one or more atoms, held together with a chemical bond.
Chemical bondform of attraction between atoms that holds them together; sharing of electrons
The number and type of bonds are important.
The number of bonds an atom can form is determined by its valence electrons.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Important elements form the following numbers of bonds:
Carbon = 4
Nitrogen = 3
Oxygen = 2
Phosphorous = 5
Hydrogen = 1
Sulfur = 2 or 6
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 43 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Atom- basic unit of matter, composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Proton-- positively charged, nucleus, # of protons determines identity of atom. Atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons. Element- contains only one type of atom, smallest unit that can not be broken down any further by the methods of chemistry. Isotope- atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (atomic mass) Isomers- molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures. Orbital- region where an electron is present most of the time; the maximum number of electrons in an orbital is 2. Molecules tend to be most stable when they share enough electrons to fill the outer shell. We only care about a few elements -> carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur. Column indicates # of valence electrons (electrons in outside orbitals) Molecule- substance made up of one or more atoms, held together with a chemical bond.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.