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Georgia Institute of Technology
Applied Physiology
APPH 1040

HPS 1040: Kliem Review: Exam I Wellness (Chapter One) 1. Leading causes of death in US - heart disease - cancer - stroke - chronic lung diseases - other 2. Improvement in public health and relationship to life expectancy - public health improvements such as recognition of tobacco as a health hazard have increased life expectancy from 47.3 in 1900 to 76.9 in 2000 3. Salutogenesis - Antonovsky - “salus” – focus on factors that lead to health and well-being, rather than factors that cause disease - sense of coherence: comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness 4. Six dimensions of wellness - physical - emotional - intellectual - spiritual - interpersonal/social - environmental 5. Health benefits of laughter - lowers blood pressure - lowers stress hormones - raises muscle flexion - boosts immune system - triggers endorphin release 6. Role genes play in your overall wellness - genes only explain a small proportion of breast cancer patients - poor diet a better explanation for obesity than genes - diseases evolve from gene/environment interaction 7. Factors that influence wellness - genes/environment 8. Use of the human genome to improve health - personalized risk assessment - pharmacogenomics - gene therapy 9. Theoretical relationship between longevity and quality of life - the better the quality of life, the longer one tends to live – less risk for disease Behavior Modification (Chapter One) 1. Define & give examples of: risk perception, relative risk, absolute risk, health literacy - Risk Perception: people are more afraid of man-made risks, imposed risks, and sources we don‟t trust than of natural, chosen risks from sources we trust - Absolute Risk: a person‟s chance of developing a disease over a specified time period Ex. Breast Cancer: 100,000 women between ages of 20 and 29 for one year – 4 will develop breast cancer - Relative Risk: a measure of comparative risk of a health-related event between two groups Ex. The chance that a person receiving an exposure will develop a condition, compared to the chance that a non-exposed person will develop the same condition Ex. The relative risk of a developing a disease is higher in smokers than in non-smokers 2. Define & understand the Stages of Change Model - Pre-contemplation - Contemplation - Preparation - Action - Maintenance 3. Calculate relative or absolute risk from examples 4. Define: internal locus of control, external locus of control - Internal LoC: believe outcomes are contingent on their actions - External LoC: believe outcomes are determined by events or forces outside their personal control Critical Thinking Case Study 1. Define: immunization, vaccine, passive immunity, acquired immunity, herd immunity, cohort, epidemiology - Immunization: the process of „priming‟ the body to remember an encounter with a specific antigen - Passive Immunity: injection of antibodies produced by other human beings or animals - Vaccine: introduction of a killed or weakened pathogen to stimulate the body to produce antibodies - Acquired Immunity: the ability of memory lymphocytes to remember a previous infection (ex. Chicken Pox) - Herd Immunity: since immunizations are not for everyone, a sufficient fraction of the population needs to be immunized for all to be safe Cohort: a group of subjects with a common defining characteristic (typically an age group in longitudinal studies) Epidemiology: the study of patterns of health and illness and associated factors at the population level. 2. Be able to critically analyze & evaluate a scientific claim: identify control vs experimental group, importance of “sample size” and study replication, and understand how conflicts of interest may lead to bad science. Nervous System - Brain Lecture 1. Lobes of the brain and function - Frontal Lobe: thinking, planning, decision-making, problem-solving, movement - Parietal Lobe: sensation - Temporal Lobe: memory, emotion, hearing, language - Occipital Lobe: vision - Cerebellum: balance - Brainstem: Medulla (breathing, heartrate, orgasm, urination), Pons (sleep, arousal), Reticular Formation (sleep, arousal, attention) 2. Brain development-rela
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