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Georgia Institute of Technology
Applied Physiology
APPH 1040

HPS 1040: Kliem Review: Exam II Drugs of Abuse (Chapter Four) 1. Define: addiction; understand how it develops a. Addiction has no single cause b. It can be dependent on the individual and/or his environment c. Behavior becomes central focus d. Addiction: the state of being psychologically or physically enslaved to a habit or practice 2. Define: psychoactive a. Affecting the mind 3. Characteristics of addictive behavior, people with (and without) addictions a. People with addictions feel physically ill without the object of their addiction b. Drug Abuse i. Can cause nausea, vomiting, and tremors (alcohol, opioids) ii. Fatigue, irritability (from stimulants) 4. Define: drug abuse, drug dependence, tolerance a. Drug Abuse: recurrent drug use that interferes with life responsibilities, leads to legal problems, social and interpersonal problems, and is physically hazardous. b. Drug Dependence: continued substance use despite recognizing it as a psychological or physical problem c. Tolerance: it takes increased amounts of a substance to produce the desired effect – physical dependence d. Anxiety or irritability (withdrawal) – psychological dependence 5. Stimulants/depressants: physiological effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, liver, etc., relationship to the stress pathway a. Stimulants a. Create fake messages in the brain to tell the body it is under stress b. The blood to the skin decreases; the body is then less able to cool itself, making overheating a risk c. The liver releases sugar into the blood, reducing the body’s energy stores d. The Body cannot respond to real stress b. Depressants a. Slows messages between the body and the brain b. Signals from the eyes and other senses reach the brain slowly c. heart rate drops; the body is left with less energizing oxygen d. breathing rate decreases; risk of lung infection rises e. messages to muscles are slower; motor functions are reduced f. The Body can’t sense or respond to danger quickly 5. Reward pathway and dopamine a. Reward Pathway i. Reward: nucleus accumbens ii. Planning Judgement: Prefrontal Cortex iii. Dopamine’s Role 1. The release of dopamine in the ventral pallidum drives the reward process 2. Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens is a “pleasure neurotransmitter” 6. Cocaine: mechanism of action, PET study discussed in class, stereotypic behaviors a. Mechanism of Action i. Modifies the action of dopamine; binds to dopamine re-uptake transporters and inhibits the removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft; it remains there and is free to bind to its receptors in the post synaptic membrane; leads to increased activation of the reward pathway and a “high” b. PET Study i. Cocaine lowers the number of active dopamine receptors ii. Lowers activity in crucial parts of the brain c. Stereotypic Behaviors i. Euphoria (15-20 minutes) – irritability, anxiety, depression ii. Paranoia and/or aggressiveness iii. Sudden death from excessive CNS (central nervous system) stimulation iv. Withdrawal: depression, agitation, fatigue 7. Caffeine: mechanism of action, intended use, adverse effects, physiological effects a. Mechanism of Action i. Caffeine increase the energy metabolism in the brain but decreases the cerebral blood flow – causes brain hypoperfusion ii. Affects the local release of dopamine iii. Methylxanthine acts on serotonin neurons b. Intended Use i. Meant to wake people up, speed up response time c. Adverse Affects i. Could lead to drug dependence ii. De-caff can make you fall asleep iii. Heart problems d. Physiological Effects i. Stimulant ii. Increases blood pressure iii. Increases heart conductivity iv. Raises risk for heart disease 8. Marijuana: physiological effects, adverse effects, dose-response a. Acts on endocannabinoid system: involved in appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory b. Anandamide: cannabinoid transmitter; bringer or inner bliss c. THC d. Effects i. Low Doses 1. Euphoria 2. Heightened sensory experience 3. Relaxed attitude ii. Moderate Doses 1. Impaired memory 2. Disturbed thought patters 3. Lapses of attention iii. High Doses 1. Sensory distortion 2. Anxious, panicky iv. Long-Term Use 1. Lungs can be hurt 2. Hurts reproductive system 3. Raises risk for heart attacks v. Physiologically 1. Higher heart rate 2. Dilates blood vessels in eyes 3. Lowers sperm count 4. Abnormally formed sperm 5. Abnormal patterns of sperm movement 9. Relationship between dependence and tolerance a. Tolerance: a state in which an organism no longer responds to a drug i. Higher dose required for same effect b. Someone dependent on a drug has developed higher and higher tolerance for it 10. Withdrawal: definition, signs associated with drugs discussed in class a. Withdrawal: physical and psychological disturbance when a drug is removed 11. Drug factors 12. Adderall: side effects, intended use a. Meant for those with ADD b. Side Effects i. Cardiac arrest ii. Light-headed, fainting iii. Elevated blood pressure iv. Headache, blurred vision v. Numbness vi. Seizure, hallucinations vii. Tics viii. Insomnia ix. Loss of appetite 13. Prescription drugs and overdose a. Of the 729 drug overdose deaths in 2010, 560 involved only prescription drugs b. 68 were attributed to a combination of illicit and prescribed 14. Effects of nicotine on the brain, symptoms of nicotine poisoning, effects on heart, pancreas a. Effects i. Increase dopamine in the brain ii. Releases epinephrine and norepinephrine – increases heart rate, blood pressure iii. Suppresses hunger in the pancreas iv. Releases acetylocholine in the neuromuscular junction v. Releases glutamate in the hippocampus Nutrition (Chapter Two) 15. Define: nutrition a. Science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease 16. Essential nutrients – what are they, how do you get them a. A nutrient builds and maintains the tissues and organ systems in one’s body b. There are 45 essential nutrients i. Macronutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates ii. Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals iii. Water 17. Define: calorie a. The standard unit of energy used or taken in b. Kilocalorie: measure of energy in food i. 1 kcal is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of fluid by 1 degree centigrade ii. 1000 calories = 1kcal 18. Fats/Lipids: function, different forms (examples of each), define hydrogenation, trans-fatty acids, essential fats, beneficial fats (examples, why are they good for you) a. Function i. Ener
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